COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS AND HOW THEY WORK

os

What is a computer operating system?

An operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer. It manages the computer’s memory and processes, as well as all of its software and hardware. It also allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing how to speak the computer’s language. Without an operating system, a computer is useless.

Operating system (OS), program that manages a computer’s resources, especially the allocation of those resources among other programs. Typical resources include the central processing unit (CPU), computer memory, file storage, input/output (i/o)devices, and network connections. Management tasks include scheduling resource use to avoid conflicts and interference between programs. Unlike most programs, which complete a task and terminate, an operating system runs indefinitely and terminates only when the computer is turned off.

TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS

Operating systems usually come pre-loaded on any computer you buy. Most people use the operating system that comes with their computer, but it’s possible to upgrade or even change operating systems. The three most common operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux.

Modern operating systems use a graphical user interface, or GUI (pronounced gooey). A GUI lets you use your mouse to click iconsbuttons, and menus, and everything is clearly displayed on the screen using a combination of graphics and text.

Each operating system’s GUI has a different look and feel, so if you switch to a different operating system it may seem unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems are designed to be easy to use, and most of the basic principles are the same.

Microsoft Windows

Microsoft created the Windows operating system in the mid-1980s. There have been many different versions of Windows, but the most recent ones are Windows 10 (released in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), and Windows Vista (2007). Windows comes pre-loaded on most new PCs, which helps to make it the most popular operating system in the world.

viewing a windows operating system

macOS

macOS (previously called OS X) is a line of operating systems created by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. Some of the specific versions include Mojave (released in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016).

viewing a mac operating system

Linux

Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a family of open-source operating systems, which means they can be modified and distributed by anyone around the world. This is different from proprietary software like Windows, which can only be modified by the company that owns it. The advantages of Linux are that it is free, and there are many different distributions—or versions—you can choose from.

FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM

An operating system has three main functions: (1) manage the computer’s resources, such as the central processing unit, memory, disk drives, and printers, (2) establish a user interface, and (3) execute and provide services for applications software. Keep in mind, however, that much of the work of an operating system is hidden from the user; many necessary tasks are performed behind the scenes. In particular, the first listed function, managing the computer’s resources, is taken care of without the user being aware of the details. Furthermore, all input and output operations, although invoked by an applications program, are actually carried out by the operating system. Although much of the operating system functions are hidden from view, you will know when you are using an applications software package, and this requires that you invoke-call into action-the operating system. Thus you both establish a user interface and execute software.

FEATURES OF COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS

Features of Operating System

There is a wide range of notable features in the operating system which is developing day by day. The growth of OS is admirable because it is developed in 1950 to handle the storage tapes and now it was working as an interface that gives the visual treat for the end-user by throwing brilliant colors. Given below are the features of the operating system:

1. Security Management

The information and confidential data stored in the system is protected by the operating system and block the system by giving strong authorized keys to the user securing the system from malware attack. The operating system acts as supervisor mode and gives the system a strongly protected firewall. OS handle and rectify the errors as soon as possible without any difficulty.

2. Process Management

The program execution is managed effectively by the operating system without any overlapping or time delay. The management of the process supports OS to develop and eliminate process and provides mechanism form communication and synchronization within multiple processes.

3. Storage and Memory Management

OS performs memory management and virtual memory multitasking. The need for memory management in OS is to allocate and de-allocate memory space to process in demand of resources or if they are running out of memory that leads to alerts called file system and disk space is high or full. So it is advisable to view and take back up of the memory and storage devices periodically. The system has many storage hierarchies like primary, secondary, and cache storage. Pseudocode and data should be saved in the Cache so that the running process can refer to it in case of any issues. The operating system can do resource allocation and prevent the system from overloading.

4. Disk Management

OS permits disk access to manage files systems, file system device drivers and related activities of files like retrieval, naming, sharing, storage and protection of files.

5. I/O Operations

OS can effectively handle I/O operations to hide the peculiar behavior of hardware from the end-user.

6. Loading and Execution

The command interpretation is made to interpret the given commands and make the resources to act on the system by processing the commands. The group of processors that don’t share a memory or hardware device is called a distributed system where the processor interacts with another device all through the network. OS coordinates and assigns the interpreters, compilers and other software resources of the different uses of the computer system. Booting is one of the important features of the operating system, that is making the computer’s OS to start and load the computer to work. It is also termed as loading and execution of the computer system.

7. Device Management

The device and printer controlling are managed by an operating system by permitting a correct flow. Disk management is performed to track all hardware connected to the system and also the resource utilized by different jobs and users. It is one of the responsible for the I/O controller.

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