UNDERSTANDING PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
What is a programming Language?
A programming language is a set of commands, instructions, and other syntax use to create a software program. Languages that programmers use to write code are called “high-level languages.” This code can be compiled into a “low-level language,” which is recognized directly by the computer hardware.
A programming language is also a notation designed to connect instructions to a machine or a computer. Programming languages are mainly used to control the performance of a machine or to express algorithms. At present, thousand programming languages have been implemented. In the computer field, many languages need to be stated in an imperative form, while other programming languages utilize declarative form. The program can be divided into two forms such as syntax and semantics. Some languages are defined by an SO standard like C language.
TYPES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Functional Programming Language
Functional programming language typically uses stored data, frequently avoiding loops in favor of recursive functions.The functional programing’s primary focus is on the return values of functions, and side effects and different suggests that storing state are powerfully discouraged. For example, in an exceedingly pure useful language, if a function is termed, it’s expected that the function not modify or perform any o/p. It may, however, build algorithmic calls and alter the parameters of these calls. Functional languages are usually easier and build it easier to figure on abstract issues, however, they’ll even be “further from the machine” therein their programming model makes it difficult to know precisely, but the code is decoded into machine language (which are often problematic for system programming).
Procedural Programming Language
The procedural programming language is used to execute a sequence of statements which lead to a result. Typically, this type of programming language uses multiple variables, heavy loops and other elements, which separates them from functional programming languages. Functions of procedural language may control variables, other than function’s value returns. For example, printing out information.
Scripting Programming Language
These programming languages are often procedural and may comprise object-oriented language elements, but they fall into their own category as they are normally not full-fledged programming languages with support for development of large systems. For example, they may not have compile-time type checking. Usually, these languages require tiny syntax to get started.
Object-oriented Programming Language
This programming language views the world as a group of objects that have internal data and external accessing parts of that data. The aim this programming language is to think about the fault by separating it into a collection of objects that offer services which can be used to solve a specific problem. One of the main principle of object oriented programming language is encapsulation that everything an object will need must be inside of the object. This language also emphasizes reusability through inheritance and the capacity to spread current implementations without having to change a great deal of code by using polymorphism.
The Java language is a multi platform language that’s particularly helpful in networking. Of course, mostly this language is used on the web with Java applets. However, this language is used to design cross platform programs, Since it similar to C++ in structure and syntax. For C++ programmers, Java language is very easy to learn and it offers some advantages provided by object oriented programming. Like reusability and it can be difficult to write efficient code in Java. But, nowadays the speed of the Java language has increased and 1.5 version offers some good features for easy program making.
The PHP language is used to design web pages and sometimes it is also used as scripting language. This language is designed to develop a rapid website, and as a result comprises features which make it easy generate HTTP headers and link to databases. As a scripting language, it includes a set of components permit the programmer to easily get up to speed. However, it has more sophisticated object oriented features.
Perl language is a file management language for UNIX. But it is more popular for its common gateway interface programming (CGI). It is a term for programs that web servers can perform to allow additional capabilities of web pages. Pearl language is a method for searching text and it is used for useful server functions and other databases, and it is very easy to pick up the fundamentals if you have any experience in any language. As a CGi language, web hosting services select Perl language over C++ language. Because, the web hosts can review Perl script files. Since they are text files, when C++ is compiled.
Is an object-oriented computer programming language commonly used to create interactive effects within web browsers.
FEATURES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
The popularity of a programming language depends on the features and utilities it provides to programmers. The features that a programming language must have to stand out are the following:
- Simplicity: the language must offer clear and simple concepts that facilitate its learning and application, in a way that is simple to understand and maintain. Simplicity does not mean that it can be subtracted from the optimal power of functioning.
- Naturalness: this means that its application in the area for which it was designed must be done naturally, providing operators, structures and syntax for operators to work efficiently.
- Abstraction: it is the ability to define and use complicated structures or operations while ignoring some details, which influences writing ability.
- Efficiency: Programming languages must be translated and executed efficiently so as not to take up too much memory space or require too much time.
- Structuring: the language allows programmers to write their codes according to structured programming concepts, to avoid creating errors.
- Compactness: with this characteristic, it is possible to express operations concisely, without having to write too many details.
- Locality: refers to the codes concentrating on the part of the program with which you are working at a given time.
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