DYNAMIC ROUTING AND ITS BENEFITS IN COMPUTER NETWORKING

Definition Of A Router

router is a networking device that receives and sends data on computer networks. Routers are sometimes confused with network hubs, modems, or network switches. However, routers can combine the functions of these components, and connect with these devices, to improve Internet access or help create business networks.

How does a router work?

Routers guide and direct network data, using packets that contain various kinds of data—such as files, communications, and simple transmissions like web interactions.

The data packets have several layers, or sections, one of which carries identifying information such as sender, data type, size, and most importantly, the destination IP (Internet protocol) address. The router reads this layer, prioritizes the data, and chooses the best route to use for each transmission.

How do routers help your business?

A common tool for modern network computing, routers connect employees to networks, both local and the Internet, where just about every essential business activity takes place. Without routers, we wouldn’t be able to use the Internet to collaborate, communicate, or gather information and learn. 

Routers can also provide security. Embedded firewall and content filtering software provide an additional protection from unwanted content and malicious websites without affecting your online experience.

A router isn’t just for data transmission or Internet connections, though. Most routers allow you to connect hard drives and use them as file-sharing servers, or printers that can then be accessed by anyone on the network.

Types of routers

Core router

Core routers are generally used by service providers (i.e. AT&T, Verizon, Vodafone) or cloud providers (i.e. Google, Amazon, Microsoft). They provide maximum bandwidth to connect additional routers or switches. Most small businesses will not need core routers. But very large enterprises that have many employees working in various buildings or locations may use core routers as part of their network architecture.

Edge router

An edge router, also called a gateway router or just “gateway” for short, is a network’s outermost point of connection with external networks, including the Internet.

Edge routers are optimized for bandwidth and designed to connect to other routers to distribute data to end users. Edge routers don’t usually offer Wi-Fi or the ability to manage local networks fully. They typically have only Ethernet ports—an input to connect to the Internet and several outputs to connect additional routers.

Edge router and modem are somewhat interchangeable terms, though the latter term is no longer commonly used by manufacturers or IT professionals when referencing edge routers.

Distribution router

A distribution router, or interior router, receives data from the edge router (or gateway) via a wired connection and sends it on to end users, typically via Wi-Fi, though the router usually also includes physical (Ethernet) connections for connecting users or additional routers.

Wireless router

Wireless routers or residential gateways, combine the functions of edge routers and distribution routers. These are commonplace routers for home networks and Internet access.

Most service providers provide full-featured wireless routers as standard equipment. But even if you have the option to use an ISP’s wireless router in your small business, you may want to use a business-level router to take advantage of better wireless performance, more connectivity controls, and security.

Virtual router

Virtual routers are pieces of software that allow some router functions to be virtualized in the cloud and delivered as a service. These routers are ideal for large businesses with complex network needs. They offer flexibility, easy scalability, and a lower entry cost. Another benefit of virtual routers is reduced management of local network hardware.

Definition Of Routing

Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network or between or across multiple networks. … Packet forwarding is the transit of network packets from one network interface to another. Intermediate nodes are typically network hardware devices such as routers, gateways, firewalls, or switches.

DYNAMIC ROUTING

Dynamic routing, also called adaptive routing, is a process where a router can forward data via a different route or given destination based on the current conditions of the communication circuits within a system.

Characteristics of dynamic IP routing protocols

Below are some important characteristics of various Dynamic Routing Protocols that are used in Cisco IOS routers.

RIPv2

* Distance Vector Protocol.
* Suitable for small to medium networks.
* Average convergence speed.
* Supports VLSM.
* Supports CIDR.
* Standardized protocols (supports multi-vendor networks.)
* Multicast address for updates: 224.0.0.9
* Administrative distance: 120.
* Difficulty to Administer: Low

EIGRP

* Advanced distance vector protocol.
* Suitable for routing in large networks.
* Very high speed of convergence.
* Supports VLSM.
* Supports CIDR.
* Cisco proprietary.
* Multicast address for updates: 224.0.0.10
* Administrative Distance: internal 90, external 170.
* Difficulty to Administer: Medium

OSPFv2

* Link state protocol.
* Suitable for routing in large networks.
* High convergence speed.
* Supports VLSM.
* Supports CIDR.
* Standardized (supports multi-vendor networks.)
* Multicast address for updates: 224.0.0.5 / 224.0.0.6
* Administrative distance: 110.
* Difficulty to Administer: Medium

IS-IS

* Link state protocol.
* Suitable for routing in large networks.
* High convergence speed.
* Supports VLSM.
* Supports CIDR.
* OSI standard (it supports multi-vendor networks.)
* Administrative distance: 115.
* Difficulty to Administer: High.

BGPv4

* Path vector protocol.
* Suitable for the Internet (between Autonomous Systems or within ISP networks).
* Speed of convergence: low.
* Supports VLSM.
* Supports CIDR.
* Standard (supports multi-vendor networks.)
* Updates unicast.
* Administrative Distance: 20 eBGP, iBGP 200.
* Difficulty to Administer: High.

Some Notes about MPLS

Service Providers use MPLS networks (MultiProtocol Label Switching) to offer IP network connectivity to their clients. The usual connectivity services offered from MPLS networks are Layer3 VPNs and Layer2 VPNs (usually point-to-point Layer 2). An MPLS network makes use of two different Routing Protocols. An Interior Gateway Protocol (usually OSPF or IS-IS) and also BGPv4 which is a modified version of the regular BGP protocol and is used to carry MPLS label information within the MPLS network.

BENEFITS OF DYNAMIC ROUTING

The chief advantages of dynamic routing over static routing are scalability and adaptability. A dynamically routed network can grow more quickly and larger, and is able to adapt to changes in the network topology brought about by this growth or by the failure of one or more network components.

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