Windows Os Versions

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WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM?

Operating system (OS), program that manages a computer’s resources, especially the allocation of those resources among other programs. Typical resources include the central processing unit (CPU), computer memory, file storage, iInput output devices, and network connections. Management tasks include scheduling resource use to avoid conflicts and interference between programs. Unlike most programs, which complete a task and terminate, an operating system runs indefinitely and terminates only when the computer is turned off.

An operating system, or “OS,” is software that communicates with the hardware and allows other programs to run. … Every desktop computer, tablet, and smartphone includes an operating system that provides basic functionality for the device. Common desktop operating systems include Windows, OS X, and Linux

Types of Operating System (OS)

Following are the popular types of OS (Operating System):

  • Batch Operating System
  • Multitasking/Time Sharing OS
  • Multiprocessing OS
  • Real Time OS
  • Distributed OS
  • Network OS
  • Mobile OS

Batch Operating System

Some computer processes are very lengthy and time-consuming. To speed the same process, a job with a similar type of needs are batched together and run as a group.

The user of a batch operating system never directly interacts with the computer. In this type of OS, every user prepares his or her job on an offline device like a punch card and submit it to the computer operator.

Multi-Tasking/Time-sharing Operating systems

Time-sharing operating system enables people located at a different terminal(shell) to use a single computer system at the same time. The processor time (CPU) which is shared among multiple users is termed as time sharing.

Real time OS

A real time operating system time interval to process and respond to inputs is very small. Examples: Military Software Systems, Space Software Systems are the Real time OS example.

Distributed Operating System

Distributed systems use many processors located in different machines to provide very fast computation to its users.

Network Operating System

Network Operating System runs on a server. It provides the capability to serve to manage data, user, groups, security, application, and other networking functions.

Mobile OS

Mobile operating systems are those OS which is especially that are designed to power smartphones, tablets, and wearables devices.

Some most famous mobile operating systems are Android and iOS, but others include BlackBerry, Web, and watchOS.

Functions of Operating System

Some typical operating system functions may include managing memory, files, processes, I/O system & devices, security, etc.

Below are the main functions of Operating System:

In an operating system software performs each of the function:

  1. Process management:- Process management helps OS to create and delete processes. It also provides mechanisms for synchronization and communication among processes.
  2. Memory management:- Memory management module performs the task of allocation and de-allocation of memory space to programs in need of this resources.
  3. File management:- It manages all the file-related activities such as organization storage, retrieval, naming, sharing, and protection of files.
  4. Device Management: Device management keeps tracks of all devices. This module also responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller. It also performs the task of allocation and de-allocation of the devices.
  5. I/O System Management: One of the main objects of any OS is to hide the peculiarities of that hardware devices from the user.
  6. Secondary-Storage Management: Systems have several levels of storage which includes primary storage, secondary storage, and cache storage. Instructions and data must be stored in primary storage or cache so that a running program can reference it.
  7. Security:- Security module protects the date and information of a computer system against malware threat and authorized access.
  8. Command interpretation: This module is interpreting commands given by the and acting system resources to process that commands.
  9. Networking: A distributed system is a group of processors which do not share memory, hardware devices, or a clock. The processors communicate with one another through the network.
  10. Job accounting: Keeping track of time & resource used by various job and users.
  11. Communication management: Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, and another software resource of the various users of the computer systems.

Features of Operating System (OS)

Here is a list important features of OS:

  • Protected and supervisor mode
  • Allows disk access and file systems Device drivers Networking Security
  • Program Execution
  • Memory management Virtual Memory Multitasking
  • Handling I/O operations
  • Manipulation of the file system
  • Error Detection and handling
  • Resource allocation
  • Information and Resource Protection

WHAT IS WINDOWS OS?

Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and marketed by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry

Microsoft Windows, also called Windows and Windows OS, computer operating system (OS) developed by Microsoft Corporation to run personal computers (PCs). Featuring the first graphical user interface (GUI) for IBM-compatible PCs, the Windows OS soon dominated the PC market.

What is the purpose of Windows operating system?

Microsoft Windows (also referred to as Windows or Win) is a graphical operating system developed and published by Microsoft. It provides a way to store files, run software, play games, watch videos, and connect to the Internet. Microsoft Windows was first introduced with version 1.0 on November

TYPES OF WINDOWS OS

Windows OS Versions for the PC 

The initial version of the Windows operating system launched in 1985, introducing users of MS-DOS, the text-based operating system that was then the main Microsoft OS, to graphics and the computer mouse.

Windows 1 and a number of subsequent editions essentially would run on top of MS-DOS and rely on DOS for many features rather than running as true standalone operating systems. Windows 95, one of the most-famous early versions, was released in 1995 amid a huge marketing campaign by Microsoft. It introduced the world to the famous Windows Start Menu. It was also the first version to feature Internet Explorer, Microsoft’s first Web browser.

Windows ME, released in 2000, was the last to run on top of DOS. The next year, Microsoft released Windows XP, which was used at many businesses for over a decade and received praise by both critics and users alike. Subsequent versions included the less-successful Windows Vista, as well as Windows 7, Windows 8, and the current version for home and office PCs known as Windows 10.

Windows 9 does not exist because of the possibility that users and programs, when attempting to determine the software’s version, might confuse it with Windows 95 or Windows 98.

Windows 10, released in 2015, offers support for desktops, laptops and tablets. Rather than rolling out another radically different operating system in the near future, Microsoft has stated publicly that it intends to roll out incremental updates to Windows 10.

Windows OS Versions for Servers

In addition to making software for home and business PC users, Microsoft has long made software, including versions of Windows, for servers, the high-powered machines that power websites and big companies.

In 1993, Microsoft launched what it called Windows NT. It was an operating system designed for servers and high-powered workstations, running code separate from the DOS-based PC versions of Windows available at the time. It was designed to woo corporate users and programmers away from alternative server operating systems like the Unix and VMS families of software. Starting with Windows XP, other versions of Windows would run on code that originated in NT, rather than on top of DOS.

In 2000, a new server product was released called the Windows 2000 Server. Subsequent server-oriented versions of Windows would all have Windows Server in their name, all the way through to today’s version, initially known as Windows Server 2016 and now simply called Windows Server. The server operating systems, which generally support more powerful computers and are designed to be used by multiple users at once, are designed for workloads that run in the background rather than directly interfacing with users.

Windows OS Versions for Phones

Microsoft has released a number of operating systems for smartphones and, before that, for personal data assistants. The earliest versions, released in the late 1990s, used the brand name Windows “CE,” for “compact edition,” and the devices were very low-powered and simple compared to today’s smartphones.

Starting in the early 2000s, Windows-powered operating systems were released under the name “Windows Mobile” for phones and PDAs known as pocket PCs. The first to launch with a modern smartphone app store, similar to iPhone and Android offerings, was Windows Mobile 6.5, which was released in 2009.

The next year, the company released a new operating system that kept the numbering but, as on Windows Phone 7, changed the word “Mobile” to “Phone.” It introduced a number of unique features, including tiles for individual apps. The software was critically well-received and beloved by some users but failed to gain traction at the level of Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android operating systems.

Windows Phone 8, launched in 2012, was the first to share code with the company’s computer Windows software. In 2014, Windows Phone 8.1 became the first to include Cortana, a voice-powered virtual assistant similar to Apple’s Siri.

The latest phone software is known as Windows 10 Mobile, and it’s designed to emphasize its similarities to the desktop OS. It’s only available for a limited number of phones and isn’t widely adopted.

Windows OS Versions for the PC 

The initial version of the Windows operating system launched in 1985, introducing users of MS-DOS, the text-based operating system that was then the main Microsoft OS, to graphics and the computer mouse.

Windows 1 and a number of subsequent editions essentially would run on top of MS-DOS and rely on DOS for many features rather than running as true standalone operating systems. Windows 95, one of the most-famous early versions, was released in 1995 amid a huge marketing campaign by Microsoft. It introduced the world to the famous Windows Start Menu. It was also the first version to feature Internet Explorer, Microsoft’s first Web browser.

Windows ME, released in 2000, was the last to run on top of DOS. The next year, Microsoft released Windows XP, which was used at many businesses for over a decade and received praise by both critics and users alike. Subsequent versions included the less-successful Windows Vista, as well as Windows 7, Windows 8, and the current version for home and office PCs known as Windows 10.

Windows 9 does not exist because of the possibility that users and programs, when attempting to determine the software’s version, might confuse it with Windows 95 or Windows 98.

Windows 10, released in 2015, offers support for desktops, laptops and tablets. Rather than rolling out another radically different operating system in the near future, Microsoft has stated publicly that it intends to roll out incremental updates to Windows 10.

Windows OS Versions for Servers

In addition to making software for home and business PC users, Microsoft has long made software, including versions of Windows, for servers, the high-powered machines that power websites and big companies.

In 1993, Microsoft launched what it called Windows NT. It was an operating system designed for servers and high-powered workstations, running code separate from the DOS-based PC versions of Windows available at the time. It was designed to woo corporate users and programmers away from alternative server operating systems like the Unix and VMS families of software. Starting with Windows XP, other versions of Windows would run on code that originated in NT, rather than on top of DOS.

In 2000, a new server product was released called the Windows 2000 Server. Subsequent server-oriented versions of Windows would all have Windows Server in their name, all the way through to today’s version, initially known as Windows Server 2016 and now simply called Windows Server. The server operating systems, which generally support more powerful computers and are designed to be used by multiple users at once, are designed for workloads that run in the background rather than directly interfacing with users.

Windows OS Versions for Phones

Microsoft has released a number of operating systems for smartphones and, before that, for personal data assistants. The earliest versions, released in the late 1990s, used the brand name Windows “CE,” for “compact edition,” and the devices were very low-powered and simple compared to today’s smartphones.

Starting in the early 2000s, Windows-powered operating systems were released under the name “Windows Mobile” for phones and PDAs known as pocket PCs. The first to launch with a modern smartphone app store, similar to iPhone and Android offerings, was Windows Mobile 6.5, which was released in 2009.

The next year, the company released a new operating system that kept the numbering but, as on Windows Phone 7, changed the word “Mobile” to “Phone.” It introduced a number of unique features, including tiles for individual apps. The software was critically well-received and beloved by some users but failed to gain traction at the level of Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android operating systems.

Windows Phone 8, launched in 2012, was the first to share code with the company’s computer Windows software. In 2014, Windows Phone 8.1 became the first to include Cortana, a voice-powered virtual assistant similar to Apple’s Siri.

The latest phone software is known as Windows 10 Mobile, and it’s designed to emphasize its similarities to the desktop OS. It’s only available for a limited number of phones and isn’t widely adopted.

Advantages of Windows operating system :

  • Backing for all equipment –
    As windows OS is utilized by 95% of clients so the majority of the equipment merchants make drivers for windows.
  • Convenience –
    All forms of Microsoft Windows have something regular in it which makes it clients simple to move starting with one form then onto the next. Windows 7 clients have no trouble in moving to Windows 10 in light of the fact that a large portion of the highlights of Windows 10 is equivalent to Windows 7. The UI of windows is additionally simple to use than UNIX and MAC.
  • Programming support –
    Windows stage is most appropriate for game and programming engineers. Windows have a huge number crowd so designers want to make utilities, games, and programming for windows OS. Linux clients can’t make windows applications so it is smarter to utilize windows for creating applications.
  • Fitting and play highlight –
    Most equipment can be distinguished naturally by attachment and play include. You don’t have to physically introduce the equipment however it is prepared to utilize when connected for example webcam, console, mouse, cell phone, and so forth.
  • Work area and contact screen –
    Windows 10 is made for both touch screen gadgets and PCs. The UI of Windows 10 is made so that it turns out better for a windows gadget.

Disadvantages of Windows operating system :

  • Infection assaults –
    Windows have a high measure of programmer assaults. The programmers can without much of a stretch break windows security. So windows clients are reliant on the enemy of infection programming and need to pay month to month charges to organizations to ensure their information. Additionally, windows clients need to refresh OS to stay up with the latest security patches.
  • The majority of the product is paid –
    Most windows programs are paid for example games, designs programming (Photoshop), download chief (IDM) and other famous programming are paid. You need to purchase these products or pay a month-to-month charge to utilize them.
  • Rebooting a framework –
    If your framework turns out to be delayed in execution then you need to reboot it. On the off chance that you load numerous projects simultaneously, at that point your framework eases back down and hangs up. The lone answer for this is to reboot.
  • Excessive cost –
    Linux OS is open source and is allowed to use for everybody except windows OS has a paid permit and you can’t utilize windows OS lawfully free. The expense of purchasing a duplicate of windows OS is high too. You likewise need to purchase other Microsoft programming for example MS Office to accomplish a standard office deal with the PC.
  • High PC assets –
    If you are introducing windows OS then your PC ought to have a high smash limit, a great deal of hard drive space, and great designs card. This is a result of highlights that are utilized in windows. In the event that you need to introduce illustrations programming for example Photoshop then 16 GB of smash is suggested.
  • Specialized help –
    Windows uphold isn’t useful for most clients. Just some enormous associations can get great help from the windows group. Basic clients need to look for gatherings to get their concerns settled.

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