Web Server Cluster Architecture

Cluster2

WHAT IS WEB SERVER?

A web server is computer software and underlying hardware that accepts requests via HTTP, the network protocol created to distribute web pages, or its secure variant HTTPS

The term web server can refer to hardware or software, or both of them working together.

  1. On the hardware side, a web server is a computer that stores web server software and a website’s component files. (for example, HTML documents, images, CSS stylesheets, and JavaScript files) A web server connects to the Internet and supports physical data interchange with other devices connected to the web.
  2. On the software side, a web server includes several parts that control how web users access hosted files. At a minimum, this is an HTTP server. An HTTP server is software that understands URLs (web addresses) and HTTP (the protocol your browser uses to view webpages). An HTTP server can be accessed through the domain names of the websites it stores, and it delivers the content of these hosted websites to the end user’s device.

At the most basic level, whenever a browser needs a file that is hosted on a web server, the browser requests the file via HTTP. When the request reaches the correct (hardware) web server, the (software) HTTP server accepts the request, finds the requested document, and sends it back to the browser, also through HTTP. (If the server doesn’t find the requested document, it returns a 404 response instead.)

To publish a website, you need either a static or a dynamic web server.

static web server, or stack, consists of a computer (hardware) with an HTTP server (software). We call it “static” because the server sends its hosted files as-is to your browser.

dynamic web server consists of a static web server plus extra software, most commonly an application server and a database. We call it “dynamic” because the application server updates the hosted files before sending content to your browser via the HTTP server.

For example, to produce the final webpages you see in the browser, the application server might fill an HTML template with content from a database. Sites like MDN or Wikipedia have thousands of webpages. Typically, these kinds of sites are composed of only a few HTML templates and a giant database, rather than thousands of static HTML documents. This setup makes it easier to maintain and deliver the content.

The most prominent types of Web Servers available in the market are:

  • Apache HTTP Server Web Server.
  • Internet Information Services (IIS) Web Server.
  • Lighttpd Web Server.
  • Sun Java System Web Server.
  • Jigsaw Server Web Server.
  • LiteSpeed server Web Server.
  • Node. js Web Server.

WHAT IS CLUSTER WEBSERVER

Clustered hosting is a type of web hosting that spreads the load of hosting across multiple physical machines, or node, increasing availability and decreasing the chances of one service affecting another

What is clustering in Web server?

A cluster is a group of two or more servers connected to each other in such a way that they behave like a single server. Each machine in the cluster is called a node. … This becomes important when one machine goes down or must be taken out of service for a time.

What is a Web cluster used for?

A web cluster is a collection of two or more computers (nodes) that work together to accomplish a common purpose. This enables clustered servers to ease the workloads by defining specific jobs among the cluster’s nodes.

How do I create a web cluster?

Image result for What is web server cluster

Follow these steps:

  1. Find all the related pages on your website. …
  2. Create a single hub page that references all these other pages. …
  3. Link to that hub page from each of those other pages. …
  4. Link to the hub page from the homepage of your website, or from another webpage that is no more than two clicks from the homepage.

A quick guide to cluster architecture – how it benefits data base and web applications

The goal of any kind of application, computer system or a processor is meeting customer expectations by rendering high-grade performance. But a computer system or web application faces millions of requests per second and it’s practically impossible for a single system to respond to such a huge number of requests.

A cluster architecture helps a system do that. To explain it in very simple terms, it is a system of interconnected nodes that by working together help in executing an application. Here, the user of the application has an impression that only a single system is responding to his requests. Though, it’s only the half-truth.

So, what a cluster is? What is the importance of cluster architecture for the web applications and database? All these and more, we will be answering through this post.

What is a Cluster Architecture?

In cluster architecture, requests or parts of the user requests are divided among two or more computer systems, such that a single user request is handled and delivered by two or more than two nodes (computer systems). The benefit is unquestionably the ability of load balancing and high-availability. How? If one node fails, the request is handled by another node. Hence, there are less or negligible chances of complete system failures.

Clustering: Digging deeper into the concept

The reason why some computer applications need clustering to support their functionalities is the nature of the job they are performing. Just like the level of productivity required from computers operating in a scientific or research firm is different from those in financial or IT companies. Mostly, the clusters are required when the service to be delivered is highly critical and must be made available or processed as fast as possible.

Now that you know what clusters are and why do computer systems need cluster architecture, let’s move on to our next section, which explains the major types of clusters and their benefits.

What are the major types of clusters?

Cluster in itself is a very comprehensive term. It includes multiple tiers and structures depending upon the need of the system. Here, we will be talking about three types of cluster computing architectures:

  • Failover clusters.
  • High-performance clusters.
  • Load balancing clusters.

Failover/High Availability clusters

We all know that a computer is basically a machine which can stop working at least expected times. So, how do system administrators manage such failovers and fix such issues?

Failover High clusters 1

Here, the role of failover or high availability clusters comes into existence. Such type of cluster maintains the service availability by a) replicating servers b) redundant software and hardware reconfiguration.

So, every system is monitoring the other and takes up request if any one node fails. These types of clusters are beneficial for those users who have a high-dependency on their computer systems. Examples include the e-commerce businesses, news channels, websites, databases etc.

The system should be efficient enough to know which all other systems are running, who is running which request and what would be the course of action in case of a failure. Hardware like RAID systems or redundant boards provide fault-tolerance ability and provide fully connected networks that can be used when one path breaks.

The important point here is that the servers should not stop working at any cost.

High-Performance Clusters

As the name suggests, the objective behind forming high-performance clusters is to deliver high performing computer systems. They run parallel programs that are required for time-exhaustive computations. Such kind of clusters are commonly preferred by the scientific industries.
The basic aim of a high-performance cluster is thus increasing performance by intelligently sharing the workload. That is why they are used by life-sciences research industry, graphics rendering services etc.

Load Balancing Clusters

Load Balancing clusters

Such types of clusters work on the idea of distributing loads among different servers. They aim to provide an increased network capacity, eventually increasing the performance. These systems integrate their nodes, with the help of which user requests are evenly distributed across the participating nodes.

It does not mean that the system is working together, rather it redirects requests individually as they arise. E-commerce businesses and internet service providers use load balancing clusters to manage user requests and deliver high performance.

However, despite so much distribution at the back-end, to the user, it appears to be a single system only. The role of clusters varies from industry to industry, depending upon the nature of operations and level of performance required. As a customer, you should be aware of the implications and benefits of clusters and how they can affect the service delivered.

Whether you run your own website or are planning to have one, take services from a provider who can deliver high-grade performing dedicated or VPS servers, which can have powerful clusters.

ADVANTAGES OF WEB SERVER CLUSTER

Server clustering helps enable your site to run smoothly. This clustering means fewer glitches and a better user experience for your visitors. A positive experience is one way to get visitors to stay on your site longer. This smooth process is attributable to load balancing, improved redundancy, and strength

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