what is internet?
The internet is the wider network that allows computer networks around the world run by companies, governments, universities and other organisations to talk to one another. The result is a mass of cables, computers, data centres, routers, servers, repeaters, satellites and wifi towers that allows digital information to travel around the world.
It is that infrastructure that lets you order the weekly shop, share your life on Facebook, stream Outcast on Netflix, email your aunt in Wollongong and search the web for the world’s tiniest cat.
The internet is a telecommunications network that uses telephone lines, cables, satellites and wireless connections to connect computers and other devices to the World Wide Web. All modern computers can connect to the internet, as can many mobile phones and some televisions, video game consoles and other devices.
How does the internet work?
Now that you have some background on the evolution of the internet, let’s tackle the question at hand: “how does the internet work?”The internet is a worldwide computer network that transmits a variety of data and media across interconnected devices. It works by using a packet routing network that follows Internet Protocol (IP) and Transport Control Protocol (TCP) .TCP and IP work together to ensure that data transmission across the internet is consistent and reliable, no matter which device you’re using or where you’re using it.When data is transferred over the internet, it’s delivered in messages and packets. Data sent over the internet is called a message, but before messages get sent, they’re broken up into tinier parts called packets.These messages and packets travel from one source to the next using Internet Protocol (IP) and Transport Control Protocol (TCP). IP is a system of rules that govern how information is sent from one computer to another computer over an internet connection.Using a numerical address (IP Address) the IP system receives further instructions on how the data should be transferred.The Transport Control Protocol (TCP) works with IP to ensure transfer of data is dependable and reliable. This helps to make sure that no packets are lost, packets are reassembled in proper sequence, and there’s no delay negatively affecting the data quality.Wondering how the internet works from browser launch to search results? Let’s go over the process step-by-step   .
When you type in a web address into your browser…
Step 1: Your PC or device is connected to the web through a modem or router. Together, these devices allow you to connect to other networks around the globe .Your router enables multiple computers to join the same network while a modem connects to your ISP (Internet Service Provider) which provides you with either cable or DSL internet.Step 2: Type in a web address, known as a URL (Uniform Resource Locator). Each website has its own unique URL that signals to your ISP where you want to go.Step 3: Your query is pushed to your ISP which connects to several servers which store and send data like a NAP Server (Network Access Protection) and a DNS (Domain Name Server).Next, your browser looks up the IP address for the domain name you typed into your search engine through DNS. DNS then translates the text-based domain name you type into the browser into the number-based IP address.
- Example: Google.com becomes 126.96.36.199
Step 4: Your browser sends a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) request to the target server to send a copy of the website to the client using TCP/IP.Step 5: The server then approves request and sends a “200 OK” message to your computer. Then, the server sends website files to the browser in the form of data packets.Step 6: As your browser reassembles the data packets, the website loads allowing you to learn, shop, browse, and engage.Step 7: Enjoy your search results!
WHAT IS INTERNET SPEED?
What is Internet Speed?
Internet speed, the number they give you (5 Mbps, for example), has nothing to do with how fast your internet works. It’s not like a car or motorcycle where you can measure how fast it goes in miles per hour (mph).
Instead, internet speed is your (allocated) bandwidth. Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be sent to you, usually measured in seconds. For example, 5 Mbps would mean that you can receive up to 5 megabits of data per second.
How Does Bandwidth Work?
The best way to explain (and understand) how bandwidth (and your internet speed) works is by using an analogy.
Think of bandwidth like a freeway. All cars (data) travel at the same speed, so to get more data from the internet to your computer faster, the freeway needs to be wider.
In other words, say 1 Mbps is the equivalent to a 1 lane freeway. And let’s say that you were trying to download an image, which is 5 Mb in size. So if you had a bandwidth of 1 Mbps (1 lane freeway) it would take you roughly 5 seconds to download the image.
Now let’s say that you have a 5 Mbps (bandwidth) connection, or a 5 lane freeway. How fast will you receive your image? 1 second.
What’s important to note here, and this confuses a lot of people, is that your internet isn’t any faster from 1 Mbps to 5 Mbps, or however much bandwidth your connection has. Your data is just transferred to you at a faster rate because more data can be sent at the same time. It’s more efficient, making your internet perceptually faster, not technically faster.
All of that said, there isn’t just one internet speed. However, real “internet speed” has to do with latency and that topic is outside the scope of this particular article.
What is kbps, mbps, MBps and gbps?
Another confusing aspect of shopping for internet based on speeds are all the terms or abbreviations being used. Mbps, MBps, kbps, Gbps; what does all of this mean?
These are the abbreviations for the amount of data that is being sent per second. Here is what each of them mean. Below that I’ve outlined a basic conversion guide and a rough idea as to how big each piece of data you consume is.
- kbps – Kilobits per second. This is used when talking about dialup (56k for example) and low speed DSL.
- Mbps or mbps – Megabits per second. Some people confuse this with megabytes. The difference between the two is how the “b” is written in the abbreviation; Mbps = megabits and MBps = megabytes. This is the most common unit of speed used.
- MBps – Megabytes per second. Megabytes aren’t usually used in (residential) internet plans.
- gbps – Gigabits per second. Gigabits are hardly used for internet plans, and the costs make them unpractical for families and small businesses.
WHAT IS CMD?
Cmd.exe is the default command-line interpreter for the OS/2, eComStation, ArcaOS, Microsoft Windows, and ReactOS operating systems. The name refers to its executable filename. It is also commonly referred to as cmd or the Command Prompt, referring to the default window title on Windows
Command Prompt is a command line interpreter application available in most Windows operating systems. It’s used to execute entered commands Most of those commands automate tasks via scripts and batch files perform advanced administrative functions, and troubleshoot or solve certain kinds of Windows issues.https://2f0c033060042a44de790c4b5f437ff2.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html
Command Prompt is officially called Windows Command Processor, but it’s also sometimes referred to as the command shell or cmd prompt, or even by its filename, cmd.exe.
Command Prompt is sometimes incorrectly referred to as “the DOS prompt” or as MS-DOS itself. Command Prompt is a Windows program that emulates many of the command line abilities available in MS-DOS, but it’s not MS-DOS.
Cmd is also an abbreviation for many other technology terms like centralized message distribution, color monitor display, and common management database, but none of them have anything to do with Command Prompt.
How to Use Command Prompt
To use Command Prompt, you enter a valid command prompt command along with any optional parameters. Command Prompt then executes the command as entered and performs the task or function it’s designed to perform in Windows.
For example, executing the following Command Prompt command in your Downloads folder would remove all MP3S from that folder:
Commands must be entered into Command Prompt exactly. The wrong syntax or a misspelling could cause the command to fail or worse; it could execute the wrong command or the right command in the wrong way. A comfort level with reading command syntax is recommended.
For example, executing the dir command will show a list of files and folders that exist at any specific location on the computer, but it doesn’t actually do anything. However, change just a couple letters and it turns into the del command, which is how you delete files from Command Prompt!
Syntax is so important that with some commands, especially the delete command, adding even a single space can mean deleting entirely different data.
Here’s an example where the space in the command breaks the line into two sections, essentially creating two commands where the files in the root folder (files) are deleted instead of the files in the subfolder (music):
del C:\files\ music
The proper way to execute that command so as to remove files from the music folder instead is to remove the space so that the whole command is strung together correctly.
Don’t let this scare you away from using Command Prompt commands, but definitely let it make you cautious.
HOW TO CHECK INTERNET SPEED USING CMD
Checking your internet speed in DOS mode is easy, and it only takes a few minutes to run a speed check test. CMD or command prompt commands for network speed are common, and with a quick ping, you can retrieve the results. There are numerous reasons for running a speed test, and several outside services offer speed tests as a free or paid service.
Why Check Your Speed?
Checking your internet speed is prudent for a variety of reasons. In some cases, checking the speed is a means of verifying the validity of your internet service provider. Most contracts for internet services offer a range of bandwidth at varying price points. However, the providers don’t always run the bandwidth promised, and a speed test helps determine whether you should call customer service with a complaint or request a speed increase.
Speed tests are also crucial for businesses and individuals who depend on fast connections for work purposes. Any mode of business that requires the transfer of high-load data packets requires a fast connection. Speed tests are common among developers, graphic designers and anyone running software across one or more devices.
Gamers who require extra bandwidth and even individuals who stream movies and music also benefit from high speeds. Modern offices and households often depend on fast internet for security systems, connected televisions and a variety of other devices. Checking the speed to ensure it hits high marks is a good idea, especially when it feels like the internet is lagging.
Speed Test CMD
The command prompt is used to enter a specific command to check internet speed. This is called a Ping command because it pings the server and measures the response time. The amount of time required for the server to respond correlates to the speed of your connection. If the server takes a long time to respond, your speed is slow, while a Ping that returns quickly correlates to a fast connection.
To run this test, Shaw Support recommends first opening the command prompt with a shortcut. In Windows, click the start menu and type “CMD” to access the command prompt. Type “ping google.com” and choose “enter” to execute the function and retrieve a list of results. The results have several lines of data that show the speed along with other metrics.
In macOS, click the “magnifying glass” for the search function and type “Network Utility.” In the Network Utility screen, click “Ping” to open the dialogue window for the action. Type the same “ping google.com” command to access the results.
Analyzing the Results
The results show a number of metrics, including speed. You can replicate this test against any website, but Google returns a consistent result because it has exceptionally reliable and consistent servers,
The first metric to check is labeled “Lost,” and it shows whether the Ping worked. A 0% lost result indicates it worked, and all the data sent was retrieved. If anything was lost, it means your internet connection is not functioning properly. If the request times out or the destination is unreachable, it indicates the internet service is down.
Look for “Avg Time =” to determine the speed value. An average time return of more than 1,000 milliseconds indicates a slow connection. Ideally, the time will return under 100 milliseconds to show a quality connection. Compare the results to the contract with the internet service provider and call to request a speed increase if the results are less than what you are paying for.
Advantages and disadvantages of Command Line Interface (CLI)
Advantages of command line interface (CLI)
If you know how to use CLI and you are familiar with different commands then your work will be completed fast as compared to using GUI. You can perform multiple tasks by entering commands in the CLI.
The command-line interface uses less memory as compare to GUI. GUI uses high memory and it slows down the computer but CLI uses minimal memory and your system will not slow down.
As CLI is a text-based interface so it can also run well on a low-resolution screen. GUI on the other hand requires a high-resolution screen in most cases.
The slow processor can work:
CLI can be run on any processor whether it is a slow processor or high processor. The commands are executed fast and they also don’t need extra processing power.
You don’t need to install windows to run commands in CLI. All operating systems support CLI. Mac has its own CLI, UNIX and Linux has also its own CLI.
When you type commands in the CLI then most of the commands are auto-complete by clicking on the TAB button on the keyboard.
CLI also helps to have communication of devices. You can operate different commands on remote computers also. You can connect different services to your PC by using CLI.
History of commands:
If you execute commands in CLI then commands are saved in the history. You can use up/down arrows from the keyboard to reuse those commands again.
Disadvantages of command line interface (CLI)
Difficult to remember:
It is difficult to remember all the commands used in the CLI. UNIX has more than 100 commands for CLI. Some commands are used with other commands and remembering the sequence of commands is also difficult.
If you write wrong commands by any typo then it may delete any file or move the file to the wrong location. If you accidentally delete any file then it creates a problem for you and maybe that file contains important information.
For new users, CLI is quite confusing. The new user cannot judge how the CLI can work and what to type in the CLI.
Most of the commands in the command line interface are not reversed or undone. So you have to be very careful to use commands. In most cases, the execution of the command is not undone and its execution continues.
Learning commands is a lengthy process. If you do not use commands daily then you will forget most of the commands. All the applications have different commands e.g. GitHub has different commands to execute.
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