WHAT IS A PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE?
A programming language is any set of rules that converts strings, or graphical program elements in the case of visual programming languages, to various kinds of machine code output. Programming languages are one kind of computer language, and are used in computer programming to implement algorithms.
A programming language is a notation designed to connect instructions to a machine or a computer. Programming languages are mainly used to control the performance of a machine or to express algorithms. At present, thousand programming languages have been implemented. In the computer field, many languages need to be stated in an imperative form, while other programming languages utilize declarative form. The program can be divided into two forms such as syntax and semantics. Some languages are defined by an SO standard like C language.
TYPES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Procedural Programming Language
The procedural programming language is used to execute a sequence of statements which lead to a result. Typically, this type of programming language uses multiple variables, heavy loops and other elements, which separates them from functional programming languages. Functions of procedural language may control variables, other than function’s value returns. For example, printing out information.
Functional Programming Language
Functional programming language typically uses stored data, frequently avoiding loops in favor of recursive functions.The functional programing’s primary focus is on the return values of functions, and side effects and different suggests that storing state are powerfully discouraged. For example, in an exceedingly pure useful language, if a function is termed, it’s expected that the function not modify or perform any o/p. It may, however, build algorithmic calls and alter the parameters of these calls. Functional languages are usually easier and build it easier to figure on abstract issues, however, they’ll even be “further from the machine” therein their programming model makes it difficult to know precisely, but the code is decoded into machine language (which are often problematic for system programming).
Object-oriented Programming Language
This programming language views the world as a group of objects that have internal data and external accessing parts of that data. The aim this programming language is to think about the fault by separating it into a collection of objects that offer services which can be used to solve a specific problem. One of the main principle of object oriented programming language is encapsulation that everything an object will need must be inside of the object. This language also emphasizes reusability through inheritance and the capacity to spread current implementations without having to change a great deal of code by using polymorphism.
WHAT IS QUANTUM COMPUTING
What Is Quantum Computing?
Quantum computing is an area of computing focused on developing computer technology based on the principles of quantum theory (which explains the behavior of energy and material on the atomic and subatomic levels). Computers used today can only encode information in bits that take the value of 1 or 0—restricting their ability.
Quantum computing, on the other hand, uses quantum bits or qubits. It harnesses the unique ability of subatomic particles that allows them to exist in more than one state (i.e., a 1 and a 0 at the same time).
- Quantum computing is the study of how to use phenomena in quantum physics to create new ways of computing.
- Quantum computing is made up of qubits.
- Unlike a normal computer bit, which can be 0 or 1, a qubit can be either of those, or a superposition of both 0 and 1.
- The power of quantum computers grows exponentially with more qubits.
- This is unlike classical computers, where adding more transistors only adds power linearly.
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE FOR QUANTUM COMPUTING
Scientists from MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence (CSAIL) have created Twist – a programming language for quantum computing. The language uses a concept called purity, which enforces the absence of entanglement and results in intuitive programs, with fewer bugs. Twist can describe and verify which pieces of data are entangled in a quantum program, using a language a programmer can understand.
Programming quantum computers requires awareness of entanglement. When two qubits are entangled, actions on one qubit can change the value of the other, even when they are physically separated. This potency is also a source of weakness. While programming, discarding one qubit without being mindful of its entanglement with another qubit can destroy the data stored in the other. This jeopardises the correctness of the program.
“Our language Twist allows a developer to write safer quantum programs by explicitly stating when a qubit must not be entangled with another,” said Charles Yuan, an MIT PhD student in electrical engineering and computer science and the lead author on a new paper about Twist. “Because understanding quantum programs requires understanding entanglement, we hope that Twist paves the way to languages that make the unique challenges of quantum computing more accessible to programmers.”
Yuan wrote the paper alongside Chris McNally, a PhD student in electrical engineering and computer science, affiliated with the MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics, as well as MIT Assistant Professor Michael Carbin. The research was presented at the 2022 Symposium on Principles of Programming conference in Philadelphia.
According to MIT scientists, Twist is expressive enough to write out programs for well-known quantum algorithms and identify bugs in their implementations. The next step for MIT is using Twist to create higher-level quantum programming languages.
“Quantum computers are error-prone and difficult to program. By introducing and reasoning about the ‘purity’ of program code, Twist takes a big step towards making quantum programming easier by guaranteeing that the quantum bits in a pure piece of code cannot be altered by bits not in that code,” said Fred Chong, Seymour Goodman Professor of Computer Science, University of Chicago and chief scientist, Super.tech.
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