Operating System Structure And Its Components

Interface. Process management. Memory management. I/O system management. File Management. Security / Protection System. Networking. Command-Interpreter System.


An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs

An Operating System (OS) is an interface between a computer user and computer hardware. An operating system is a software which performs all the basic tasks like file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.

Types of Operating System (OS)

Following are the popular types of Operating System:

  • Batch Operating System
  • Multitasking/Time Sharing OS
  • Multiprocessing OS
  • Real Time OS
  • Distributed OS
  • Network OS
  • Mobile OS

Batch Operating System

Some computer processes are very lengthy and time-consuming. To speed the same process, a job with a similar type of needs are batched together and run as a group.

The user of a batch operating system never directly interacts with the computer. In this type of OS, every user prepares his or her job on an offline device like a punch card and submit it to the computer operator.

Multi-Tasking/Time-sharing Operating systems

Time-sharing operating system enables people located at a different terminal(shell) to use a single computer system at the same time. The processor time (CPU) which is shared among multiple users is termed as time sharing.

Real time OS

A real time operating system time interval to process and respond to inputs is very small. Examples: Military Software Systems, Space Software Systems are the Real time OS example.

Distributed Operating System

Distributed systems use many processors located in different machines to provide very fast computation to its users.

Network Operating System

Network Operating System runs on a server. It provides the capability to serve to manage data, user, groups, security, application, and other networking functions.

Mobile OS

Mobile operating systems are those OS which is especially that are designed to power smartphones, tablets, and wearables devices.

Some most famous mobile operating systems are Android and iOS, but others include BlackBerry, Web, and watchOS.

Functions of Operating System

Below are the main functions of Operating System:

Functions of Operating System
Functions of Operating System

In an operating system software performs each of the function:

  1. Process management:- Process management helps OS to create and delete processes. It also provides mechanisms for synchronization and communication among processes.
  2. Memory management:- Memory management module performs the task of allocation and de-allocation of memory space to programs in need of this resources.
  3. File management:- It manages all the file-related activities such as organization storage, retrieval, naming, sharing, and protection of files.
  4. Device Management: Device management keeps tracks of all devices. This module also responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller. It also performs the task of allocation and de-allocation of the devices.
  5. I/O System Management: One of the main objects of any OS is to hide the peculiarities of that hardware devices from the user.
  6. Secondary-Storage Management: Systems have several levels of storage which includes primary storage, secondary storage, and cache storage. Instructions and data must be stored in primary storage or cache so that a running program can reference it.
  7. Security:- Security module protects the data and information of a computer system against malware threat and authorized access.
  8. Command interpretation: This module is interpreting commands given by the and acting system resources to process that commands.
  9. Networking: A distributed system is a group of processors which do not share memory, hardware devices, or a clock. The processors communicate with one another through the network.
  10. Job accounting: Keeping track of time & resource used by various job and users.
  11. Communication management: Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, and another software resource of the various users of the computer systems.

Features of Operating System (OS)

Here is a list important features of OS:

  • Protected and supervisor mode
  • Allows disk access and file systems Device drivers Networking Security
  • Program Execution
  • Memory management Virtual Memory Multitasking
  • Handling I/O operations
  • Manipulation of the file system
  • Error Detection and handling
  • Resource allocation
  • Information and Resource Protection
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Advantage of using Operating System

  • Allows you to hide details of hardware by creating an abstraction
  • Easy to use with a GUI
  • Offers an environment in which a user may execute programs/applications
  • The operating system must make sure that the computer system convenient to use
  • Operating System acts as an intermediary among applications and the hardware components
  • It provides the computer system resources with easy to use format
  • Acts as an intermediator between all hardware’s and software’s of the system

Disadvantages of using Operating System

  • If any issue occurs in OS, you may lose all the contents which have been stored in your system
  • Operating system’s software is quite expensive for small size organization which adds burden on them. Example Windows
  • It is never entirely secure as a threat can occur at any time


The parts of an operating system all exist so as to make the various parts of a computer system work together. All user software program has to undergo the operating system in order to utilize any of the hardware, whether it be as basic as a mouse or keyboard or as complicated as an Internet component


The kernel gives one of the most fundamental level of control over all the computer’s hardware devices. The kernel is the central component of an operating system (OS). It is the component of the operating system that loads initially, and it lingers in main memory. It manages memory accessibility for programs in the RAM, it establishes which programs get access to which hardware resources. It establishes or resets the CPU’s operating states for optimum operation in all times.


The operating system offers an interface in between an application program and the hardware, so that an application program can connect with the hardware just by following principles and procedures configured into the operating system. Executing an application program includes the creation of a process by the operating system kernel which appoints memory space and various other resources.


Interrupts are primary to operating systems, as they offer a reliable method for the operating system to interact with and respond to its environment. An interrupt is a signal from a device connected to a computer system or from a program within the computer system that needs the operating system to quit and determine exactly what to do next. When an interrupt is received, the computer’s hardware automatically puts on hold whatever program is presently running, saves its status, and runs computer system code formerly associated with the interrupt.


This makes sure that a program does not conflict with memory currently being used by an additional program. Since programs time share, each program has to have independent access to memory. To puts it simply, the MMU is in charge of all aspects of memory management. It is normally integrated right into the cpu, although in some systems it takes up a separate IC (integrated circuit) chip.

We can divide the work of Memory Management into 3 significant groups:

  • Hardware memory management.
  • OS (operating system) memory management.
  • Application memory management.


Multitasking describes the operating of multiple independent computer programs on the same computer system. The operating system has the ability to keep an eye on where you are in these jobs and go from one to the various other without losing information. Since a lot of computers can do at most one or two things at once, this is usually done using time-sharing, which means that each program utilizes a share of the computer’s time to perform.


The processors interact with each other via communication lines called network. The communication-network design should consider routing and connection techniques, and the troubles of opinion and safety and security. Presently most operating systems sustain a range of networking methods, hardware, and applications for using them. This implies that computers running different operating systems could take part in a common network for sharing resources such as computing, data, printers, and scanners making use of either wired or wireless connections.


If a computer systems has several individuals and enables the simultaneous operation of multiple processes, then the numerous processes have to be secured from each other’s activities. A computer system being safe and secure depends upon a variety of technologies working effectively. A modern-day operating system offers access to a number of resources, which are readily available to software working on the system, and to external devices like networks by means of the kernel. The operating system should be capable of differentiating between demands which ought to be allowed to be processed, and others which need to not be processed. In addition to allow or disallow version of security, a system with a high level of protection likewise gives auditing options. These would permit monitoring of requests for accessibility to resources (such as, “who has read this file?”).


It is everything created into an information device with which an individual might interact. The user interface is generally described as a shell and is vital if human communication is to be supported. The user interface checks out the directory framework and requests services from the operating system that will obtain information from input hardware devices and demands operating system services to display prompts, status messages and such on output hardware devices. The expanding dependancy of lots of companies on web applications and mobile applications has actually led numerous companies to place enhanced concern on UI in an effort to improve the individual’s entire experience.

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