Model–view–controller is a software design pattern commonly used for developing user interfaces that divide the related program logic into three interconnected elements. This is done to separate internal representations of information from the ways information is presented to and accepted from the

The Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework is an architectural pattern that separates an application into three main logical components Model, View, and Controller. Hence the abbreviation MVC. Each architecture component is built to handle specific development aspect of an application. MVC separates the business logic and presentation layer from each other. It was traditionally used for desktop graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Nowadays, MVC architecture in web technology has become popular for designing web applications as well as mobile apps.

MVC stands for Model — View — Controller. It’s a paradigm. It allows a coder to factor out the various components of an application and more easily update them. The MVC allows the programmer to create barriers to organize the code allowing a programmer to compartmentalize functionality.

History of MVC

  • MVC architecture was first discussed in 1979 by Trygve Reenskaug
  • MVC model was first introduced in 1987 in the Smalltalk programming language.
  • MVC was first time accepted as a general concept, in a 1988 article
  • In the recent time, MVC pattern is widely used in modern web applications

MVC Components

Following are the components of MVC −

Model View Controller


The Model component corresponds to all the data-related logic that the user works with. This can represent either the data that is being transferred between the View and Controller components or any other business logic-related data. For example, a Customer object will retrieve the customer information from the database, manipulate it and update it data back to the database or use it to render data.


The View component is used for all the UI logic of the application. For example, the Customer view will include all the UI components such as text boxes, dropdowns, etc. that the final user interacts with.


Controllers act as an interface between Model and View components to process all the business logic and incoming requests, manipulate data using the Model component and interact with the Views to render the final output. For example, the Customer controller will handle all the interactions and inputs from the Customer View and update the database using the Customer Model. The same controller will be used to view the Customer data.

MVC Examples

Let’s see Model View Controller example from daily life:

Example 1:

122118 0445 MVCTutorial2
  • Let’s assume you go to a restaurant. You will not go to the kitchen and prepare food which you can surely do at your home. Instead, you go there and wait for the waiter to come on.
  • Now the waiter comes to you, and you order the food. The waiter doesn’t know who you are and what you want he just written down the detail of your food order.
  • Then, the waiter moves to the kitchen. In the kitchen, waiter does not prepare your food.
  • The cook prepares your food. The waiter is given your order to him along with your table number.
  • Cook then prepared food for you. He uses ingredients to cooks the food. Let’s assume that your order a vegetable sandwich. Then he needs bread, tomato, potato, capsicum, onion, bit, cheese, etc. which he sources from the refrigerator
  • Cook final hand over the food to the waiter. Now it is the job of the waiter to moves this food outside the kitchen.
  • Now waiter knows which food you have ordered and how they are served.

In this MVC architecture example,

View= You
Waiter= Controller
Cook= Model
Refrigerator= Data

Let see one more MVC model example,

Example 2:

122118 0445 MVCTutorial3

Car driving mechanism is another example of the MVC model.

  • Every car consist of three main parts.
  • View= User interface : (Gear lever, panels, steering wheel, brake, etc.)
  • Controller- Mechanism (Engine)
  • Model- Storage (Petrol or Diesel tank)

Car runs from engine take fuel from storage, but it runs only using mentioned user interface devices.

Features of MVC

  • Easy and frictionless testability. Highly testable, extensible and pluggable framework
  • To design a web application architecture using the MVC pattern, it offers full control over your HTML as well as your URLs
  • Leverage existing features provided by ASP.NET, JSP, Django, etc.
  • Clear separation of logic: Model, View, Controller. Separation of application tasks viz. business logic, Ul logic, and input logic
  • URL Routing for SEO Friendly URLs. Powerful URL- mapping for comprehensible and searchable URLs
  • Supports for Test Driven Development (TDD)

Advantages of MVC: Key Benefits

Here, are major benefits of using MVC architecture:

  • Easy code maintenance which is easy to extend and grow
  • MVC Model component can be tested separately from the user
  • Easier support for new types of clients
  • Development of the various components can be performed parallelly.
  • It helps you to avoid complexity by dividing an application into the three units. Model, view, and controller
  • It only uses a Front Controller pattern which process web application requests through a single controller.
  • Offers the best support for test driven development
  • It works well for Web apps which are supported by large teams of web designers and developers.
  • Provides clean separation of concerns(SoC).
  • Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Friendly.
  • All classes and objects are independent of each other so that you can test them separately.
  • MVC design pattern allows logical grouping of related actions on a controller together.

Disadvantages of using MVC

  • Difficult to read, change, unit test, and reuse this model
  • The framework navigation can some time complex as it introduces new layers of abstraction which requires users to adapt to the decomposition criteria of MVC.
  • No formal validation support
  • Increased complexity and Inefficiency of data
  • The difficulty of using MVC with the modern user interface
  • There is a need for multiple programmers to conduct parallel programming.
  • Knowledge of multiple technologies is required.
  • Maintenance of lots of codes in Controller


What does MVC stand for in programming?

model-view-controllerIn object-oriented programming development, model-view-controller (MVC) is the name of a methodology or design pattern for successfully and efficiently relating the user interface to underlying data models.


ASP.NET supports three major development models: Web Pages, Web Forms and MVC (Model View Controller). ASP.NET MVC framework is a lightweight, highly testable presentation framework that is integrated with the existing ASP.NET features, such as master pages, authentication, etc. Within .NET, this framework is defined in the System.Web.Mvc assembly. The latest version of the MVC Framework is 5.0. We use Visual Studio to create ASP.NET MVC applications which can be added as a template in Visual Studio.

ASP.NET MVC Features

ASP.NET MVC provides the following features −

  • Ideal for developing complex but lightweight applications.
  • Provides an extensible and pluggable framework, which can be easily replaced and customized. For example, if you do not wish to use the in-built Razor or ASPX View Engine, then you can use any other third-party view engines or even customize the existing ones.
  • Utilizes the component-based design of the application by logically dividing it into Model, View, and Controller components. This enables the developers to manage the complexity of large-scale projects and work on individual components.
  • MVC structure enhances the test-driven development and testability of the application, since all the components can be designed interface-based and tested using mock objects. Hence, ASP.NET MVC Framework is ideal for projects with large team of web developers.
  • Supports all the existing vast ASP.NET functionalities, such as Authorization and Authentication, Master Pages, Data Binding, User Controls, Memberships, ASP.NET Routing, etc.
  • Does not use the concept of View State (which is present in ASP.NET). This helps in building applications, which are lightweight and gives full control to the developers.

Thus, you can consider MVC Framework as a major framework built on top of ASP.NET providing a large set of added functionality focusing on component-based development and testing.

What is PHP MVC framework?

PHP MVC is an application design pattern that separates the application data and business logic (model) from the presentation (view). MVC stands for Model, View & Controller.

The controller mediates between the models and views.

Think of the MVC design pattern as a car and the driver.

The car has the windscreens (view) which the driver (controller) uses to monitor traffic ahead then speed or brake (model) depending on what he sees ahead.

Why use PHP MVC Framework?

  • PHP MVC Frameworks simplify working with complex technologies by;
    • Hiding all the complex implementation details
    • Providing standard methods that we can use to build our applications.
    • Increased developer productivity, this is because the base implementation of activities such as connecting to the database, sanitizing user input etc. are already partially implemented.
    • Adherence to professional coding standards

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