Data transmission Protocls

What Does Data Transmission Mean?

Data transmission is the process of sending digital or analog data over a communication medium to one or more computing, network, communication or electronic devices. It enables the transfer and communication of devices in a point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and multipoint-to-multipoint environment.

Data transmission can be analog and digital but is mainly reserved for sending and receiving digital data. It works when a device or piece of equipment, such as a computer, intends to send a data object or file to one or multiple recipient devices, like a computer or server. The digital data originates from the source device in the form of discrete signals or digital bit streams. These data streams/signals are placed over a communication medium, such as physical copper wires, wireless carriers and optical fiber, for delivery to the destination/recipient device. Moreover, each outward signal can be baseband or passband.

In addition to external communication, data transmission also may be internally carried to a device. For example, the random access memory (RAM) or hard disk that sends data to a processor is also a form of data transmission.

What is Data Transmission?

Data transmission is the transfer of data from one digital device to another. This transfer occurs via point-to-point data streams or channels. These channels may previously have been in the form of copper wires but are now much more likely to be part of a wireless network. 

As we know, data transmission methods can refer to both analog and digital data but in this guide, we will be focusing on digital modulation. This modulation technique focuses on the encoding and decoding of digital signals via two main methods parallel and serial transmission.

The effectiveness of data transmission relies heavily on the amplitude and transmission speed of the carrier channel. The amount of data transferred within a given time period is the data transfer rate, which specifies whether or not a network can be used for tasks that require complex, data-intensive applications.

Network congestion, latency, server health, and insufficient infrastructure can bring data transmission rates to a sub-par level, affecting overall business performance. high speed data transfer rates are essential to processing complex tasks like online streaming and large file transfers.

Types of Data TransmissionData Transmission Types

Parallel transmission

Defination: Within a computing or communication device, the distances between different subunits are too short. Thus, it is normal practice to transfer data between subunits using a separate wire to carry each bit of data. There are multiple wires connecting each sub-unit and data is exchanged using a parallel transfer mode. This mode of operation results in minimal delays in transferring each word.

• In parallel transmission, all the bits of data are transmitted simultaneously on separate communication lines.

• In order to transmit bits, wires or lines are used. Thus each bit has its own line.

• All n bits of one group are transmitted with each clock pulse from one device to another i.e. multiple bits are sent with each clock pulse.

• Parallel transmission is used for short distance communication.

• As shown in the fig, eight separate wires are used to transmit 8 bit data from sender to receiver.Parallel TransmissionAdvantage of parallel transmission

It is speedy way of transmitting data as multiple bits are transmitted simultaneously with a single clock pulse.

Disadvantage of parallel transmission

It is costly method of data transmission as it requires lines to transmit bits at the same time.

Serial Transmission

Defination: When transferring data between two physically separate devices, especially if the separation is more than a few kilometers, for reasons of cost, it is more economical to use a single pair of lines. Data is transmitted as a single bit at a time using a fixed time interval for each bit. This mode of transmission is known as bit-serial transmission.

• In serial transmission, the various bits of data are transmitted serially one after the other.

• It requires only one communication line rather than lines to transmit data from sender to receiver.

• Thus all the bits of data are transmitted on single line in serial fashion.

• In serial transmission, only single bit is sent with each clock pulse.

• As shown in fig., suppose an 8-bit data 11001010 is to be sent from source to destination. Then least significant bit (LSB) i,e. 0 will be transmitted first followed by other bits. The most significant bit (MSB) i.e. 1 will be transmitted in the end via single communication line.

• The internal circuitry of computer transmits data in parallel fashion. So in order to change this parallel data into serial data, conversion devices are used.

• These conversion devices convert the parallel data into serial data at the sender side so that it can be transmitted over single line.

• On receiver side, serial data received is again converted to parallel form so that the interval circuitry of computer can accept it

Serial Transmission

• Serial transmission is used for long distance communication.

Advantage of Serial transmission

Use of single communication line reduces the transmission line cost by the factor of as compared to parallel transmission.

Disadvantages of Serial transmission

1. Use of conversion devices at source and destination end may lead to increase in overall transmission cost.

2. This method is slower as compared to parallel transmission as bits are transmitted serially one after the other.

Types of Serial Transmission 

There are two types of serial transmission-synchronous and asynchronous both these transmissions use ‘Bit synchronization

Bit Synchronization is a function that is required to determine when the beginning and end of the data transmission occurs.h

Bit synchronization helps the receiving computer to know when data begin and end during a transmission. Therefore bit synchronization provides timing control.

Asynchronous Transmission

• Asynchronous transmission sends only one character at a time where a character is either a letter of the alphabet or number or control character i.e. it sends one byte of data at a time.

• Bit synchronization between two devices is made possible using start bit and stop bit.

• Start bit indicates the beginning of data i.e. alerts the receiver to the arrival of new group of bits. A start bit usually 0 is added to the beginning of each byte.

• Stop bit indicates the end of data i.e. to let the receiver know that byte is finished, one or more additional bits are appended to the end of the byte. These bits, usually 1s are called stop bits.

Start and stop bit

• Addition of start and stop increase the number of data bits. Hence more bandwidth is consumed in asynchronous transmission.

• There is idle time between the transmissions of different data bytes. This idle time is also known as Gap

• The gap or idle time can be of varying intervals. This mechanism is called Asynchronous, because at byte level sender and receiver need not to be synchronized. But within each byte, receiver must be synchronized with the incoming bit stream.

Application of Asynchronous Transmission 

1. Asynchronous transmission is well suited for keyboard type-terminals and paper tape devices. The advantage of this method is that it does not require any local storage at the terminal or the computer as transmission takes place character by character.

Asynchronous Transmission

2. Asynchronous transmission is best suited to internet  traffic in which information is transmitted in short bursts. This type of transmission is used by modems.

Advantages of Asynchronous transmission

1. This method of data transmission is cheaper in cost as compared to synchronous e.g. If lines are short, asynchronous transmission is better, because line cost would be low and idle time will not be expensive.

2. In this approach each individual character is complete in itself, therefore if character is corrupted during transmission, its successor and predecessor character will not be affected.

3. It is possible to transmit signals from sources having different bit rates.

4. The transmission can start as soon as data byte to be transmitted becomes available.

5. Moreover, this mode of data transmission in easy to implement.

Disadvantages of asynchronous transmission

1. This method is less efficient and slower than synchronous transmission due to the overhead of extra bits and insertion of gaps into bit stream.

2. Successful transmission inevitably depends on the recognition of the start bits. These bits can be missed or corrupted.

Synchronous Transmission

• Synchronous transmission does not use start and stop bits.

• In this method bit stream is combined into longer frames that may contain multiple bytes.

• There is no gap between the various bytes in the data stream.

Synchronous Transmission

• In the absence of start & stop bits, bit synchronization is established between sender & receiver by ‘timing’ the transmission of each bit.

• Since the various bytes are placed on the link without any gap, it is the responsibility of receiver to separate the bit stream into bytes so as to reconstruct the original information.

• In order to receive the data error free, the receiver and sender operates at the same clock frequency.

Application of Synchronous transmission

• Synchronous transmission is used for high speed communication between computers.

Advantage of Synchronous transmission

1. This method is faster as compared to asynchronous as there are no extra bits (start bit & stop bit) and also there is no gap between the individual data bytes.

Disadvantages of Synchronous transmission

1. It is costly as compared to asynchronous method. It requires local buffer storage at the two ends of line to assemble blocks and it also requires accurately synchronized clocks at both ends. This lead to increase in the cost.

2. The sender and receiver have to operate at the same clock frequency. This requires proper synchronization which makes the system complicated.

Comparison between Serial and Parallel transmissionComparison between Asynchronous and Synchronous.     

Importance of Content Delivery Networks in Data Transmission

High-quality delivery of websites and applications to as many locations around the world as possible requires the infrastructure and expertise to achieve delivery with low latency, high performance reliability, and high-speed data transmission.

Professional content delivery networks offer a variety of benefits including seamless and secure distribution of content to end users, no matter their location. Content delivery networks, such as CDNetworks, reduce the load to a business’ central server by using a complex system of nodes strategically located around the world to deliver content through a more efficient network resource utilization.

A higher data rate conversion improves user experience and increases reliability. Bottlenecks—an indication that the amount of data funneled into a network resource is too much for it to handle—are avoided through the use of smart routing, using adaptive measures to find the best and most successful pathways in case of network congestion.

Faster Data Transfer

FTP and HTTP are common methods of file transfer. FTP can be used to transfer files or access online software archives, for example. HTTP is the protocol used to indicate how messages are not only defined, but also transmitted. It also determines what actions web browsers and servers take to respond to a variety of commands. 

HTTP requests are identified as a stateless protocol, meaning they have no information regarding previous requests. ISPs offer finite levels of bandwidth for both sending and receiving data communications, which can cause excessive slowdowns a business just cannot afford. 

A content delivery network like CDNetworks provides data transfer that is 100X faster than both FTP and HTTP methods, whether transferring a massive media file or multiple smaller files. 

Transfer Rates

High data transfer rates are essential for any business. To determine how fast data is transferred from one network location to another, the data are measured using the transfer rate in bits per second (bps). Bandwidth refers to the maximum amount of data that can be transferred within a given amount of time. One of the most promising innovations implemented by content network services is Tbps (Terabits Per Second), which was unimaginable up until the early part of the decade, and can lead to almost real-time communication between devices.

CDNetworks offers a 50 Tbps bandwidth capacity to ensure high-quality data transfer for media delivery and other large capacity content. CDNetworks transmits and merges data using multiple paths to increase the speed of data transmission.

Big Data

Because of the rise in mobile usage, social media, and a variety of sensors, the amount of data used annually has expanded by as much as 40 percent year over year, according to industry researchers. 

More than ever, high-speed data transmission infrastructure is needed by businesses in every industry to handle the ever-increasing volume of content transferred from one point to the next.

Why the Transmission of Data is so Important for Businesses

Businesses are bombarded with large volumes of data every day, with increasing complexity. 

Content delivery networks have implemented new and improved technologies to increase data transmission rates with protocols in place to protect the original quality of the data.

  • Proprietary protocols can assess bandwidth and improving efficiency for rapid retransmission and fast recovery technology.
  • Through global load balancing content delivery services like CDNetworks can access the closest entry and exit points for source and destination using 1000+ PoPs (Points of Presence), the access point from one place to the internet.
  • Multi-path transfer is used to transmit and merge data, which significantly improves speed.
  • Data encryption and origin IP masking protect data from both known and emerging threats.

What is data transmission protocols?

1. It is a set of rules that define the way data is transferred between different agents. A data transmission protocol defines the physical media to the composition of the message itself, possible going through error detection and correction.

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