## What Is Quantum Computing?

Quantum computing is an area of computing focused on developing computer technology based on the principles of quantum theory (which explains the behavior of energy and material on the atomic and subatomic levels). Computers used today can only encode information in bits that take the value of 1 or 0—restricting their ability.

Quantum computing, on the other hand, uses quantum bits or qubits. It harnesses the unique ability of subatomic particles that allows them to exist in more than one state (i.e., a 1 and a 0 at the same time).

In quantum computing operations instead use the quantum state of an object to produce what’s known as a qubit. These states are the undefined properties of an object before they’ve been detected, such as the spin of an electron or the polarisation of a photon.

Rather than having a clear position, unmeasured quantum states occur in a mixed ‘superposition’, not unlike a coin spinning through the air before it lands in your hand.

These superpositions can be entangled with those of other objects, meaning their final outcomes will be mathematically related even if we don’t know yet what they are.

The complex mathematics behind these unsettled states of entangled ‘spinning coins’ can be plugged into special algorithms to make short work of problems that would take a classical computer a long time to work out… if they could ever calculate them at all.

Such algorithms would be useful in solving complex mathematical problems, producing hard-to-break security codes, or predicting multiple particle interactions in chemical reactions.

Quantum computers, perform calculations based on the probability of an object’s state before it is measured – instead of just 1s or 0s – which means they have the potential to process exponentially more data compared to classical computers.

For the time being, classical technology can manage any task thrown at a quantum computer. Quantum supremacy describes the ability of a quantum computer to outperform their classical counterparts.

Some companies, such as IBM and Google, claim we might be close, as they continue to cram more qubits together and build more accurate devices.

Not everybody is convinced that quantum computers are worth the effort. Some mathematicians believe there are obstacles that are practically impossible to overcome, putting quantum computing forever out of reach

Quantum computing is **the study of how to use phenomena in quantum physics to create new ways of computing**. Quantum computing is made up of qubits. Unlike a normal computer bit, which can be 0 or 1, a qubit can be either of those, or a superposition of both 0 and 1

## Types of quantum computers

Building a functional quantum computer requires holding an object in a superposition state long enough to carry out various processes on them.

Unfortunately, once a superposition meets with materials that are part of a measured system, it loses its in-between state in what’s known as decoherence and becomes a boring old classical bit.

Devices need to be able to shield quantum states from decoherence, while still making them easy to read.

Different processes are tackling this challenge from different angles, whether it’s to use more robust quantum processes or to find better ways to check for errors.

## Quantum Computer vs. Classical Computer

Quantum computers process information differently. Classical computers use transistors, which are either 1 or 0. Quantum computers use qubits, which can be 1 or 0 at the same time. The number of qubits linked together increases the quantum computing power exponentially. Meanwhile, linking together more transistors only increases power linearly.

Classical computers are best for everyday tasks that need to be completed by a computer. Meanwhile, quantum computers are great for running simulations and data analyses, such as for chemical or drug trials. These computers must be kept ultra-cold, however. They are also much more expensive and difficult to build.^{3}

Classical computing advances include adding memory to speed up computers. Meanwhile, quantum computers help solve more complicated problems. While quantum computers might not run Microsoft Word better or faster, they can run complex problems faster.

For example, Google’s quantum computer that’s in development could help with many processes, such as speed up machine-learning training or help create more energy-efficient batteries.^{2}

Quantum computing has a number of other applications, including securely sharing information. Other methods include fighting cancer and various health concerns, such as cancer and developing new drugs. As well, quantum computers can help improve radars and their ability to detect such things as missiles and aircraft. Other areas include the environment and using quantum computing to keep the water clean with chemical sensors

## Real-World Example of a Quantum Computer

Google (GOOG) is spending billions of dollars on its plan to build its quantum computer by 2029. The company has opened a campus in California, called Google AI, to help it meet its goal. Google has been investing in this technology for years. As well, so have other companies, such as Honeywell International (HON) and International Business Machine (IBM). IBM expects to hit major quantum computing milestones in the coming years.

While some companies have built personal (although expensive) quantum computers, there is still nothing available on the commercial side. And there’s interest in quantum computing and its technology, with JPMorgan Chase and Visa looking into the technology. Once developed, Google could launch a quantum computing service via the cloud.

Companies can also gain access to quantum technology without having to build a quantum computer. IBM plans to have a 1,000-quibit quantum computer in place by 2023. For now, IBM allows access to its machines if they’re part of its Quantum Network. Those that are part of the network include research organizations, universities, and laboratories.

Microsoft also offers companies access to quantum technology via the Azure Quantum platform. This is unlike Google, which doesn’t sell access to its quantum computers

## HARDWARE STRUCTURE OF A QUANTUM COMPUTER

Since a quantum computer must eventually interface with users, data, and networks—tasks that conventional computing excels at—a quantum computer can leverage a conventional computer for these tasks whenever it is most efficient to do so. Furthermore, qubit systems require carefully orchestrated control in order to function in a useful way; this control can be managed using conventional computers.

To assist in conceptualizing the necessary hardware components for an analog or gate-based quantum computer, the hardware can be modeled in four abstract layers: the “quantum data plane,” where the qubits reside; the “control and measurement plane,” responsible for carrying out operations and measurements on the qubits as required; the “control processor plane,” which determines the sequence of operations and measurements that the algorithm requires, potentially using measurement outcomes to inform subsequent quantum operations; and the “host processor,” a classical computer that handles access to networks, large storage arrays, and user interfaces. This host processor runs a conventional operating system/user interface, which facilitates user interactions, and has a high bandwidth connection to the control processor.

### Quantum Data Plane

The quantum data plane is the “heart” of a QC. It includes the physical qubits and the structures needed to hold them in place. It also must contain any support circuitry needed to measure the qubits’ state and perform gate operations on the physical qubits for a gate-based system or control the Hamiltonian for an analog computer. Control signals routed to the selected qubit(s) set the Hamiltonian it sees, which control the gate operation for a digital quantum computer. For gate-based systems, since some qubit operations require two qubits, the quantum data plane must provide a programmable “wiring” network that enables two or more qubits to interact. Analog systems often require richer communication between the qubits, which must be supported by this layer. high qubit fidelity requires strong isolation from the

environment, which has the effect of limiting connectivity—it may not be possible for every qubit to interact directly with every other qubit—so the computation needs to be mapped to the specific architectural constraints of this layer. These constraints mean that both the operation fidelity and connectivity are important metrics of the quantum data layer.^{1}

Unlike a classical computer, where both the control plane and the data plane components use the same silicon technology and are integrated on the same device, control of the quantum data plane requires technology different from that of the qubits,^{2} and is done externally by a separate control and measurement layer (described next). Control information for the qubits, which is analog in nature, must be sent to the correct qubit (or qubits). In some systems, this control information is transmitted electrically using wires, so these wires are part of the quantum data plane; in others, it is transmitted with optical or microwave radiation. Transmission must be implemented in a manner that has high specificity, so it affects only the desired qubit(s), without disrupting the other qubits in the system. This becomes increasingly difficult as the number of qubits grows; the number of qubits in a single module is therefore another important parameter of a quantum data layer.

**Finding:** The key properties that define the quality of a quantum data plane are the error rate of the single-qubit and two-qubit gates, the interqubit connectivity, qubit coherence times, and the number of qubits that may be contained within a single module.

### Control and Measurement Plane

The control and measurement plane converts the control processor’s digital signals, which indicates what quantum operations are to be performed, to the analog control signals needed to perform the operations on the qubits in the quantum data plane. It also converts the analog output of measurements of qubits in the data plane to classical binary data that the

___________________

In some ways, the quantum data plane looks similar to a field programmable gate array, or FPGA. These are classical computing devices that contain a large number of flexible logic blocks. Each logic block can be configured—at program run time—to perform a logical function. In addition to these logic blocks, there is a configurable set of wires on the integrated circuit (IC), and one can configure the wires to interconnect the logic blocks to each other. This ability to program both the function of each logic block and their interconnection allows one to “program” the FPGA to implement the logic circuit needed to compute the desired result. Like an FPGA, “programming” of the quantum data plane also sets the function and the connections of the quantum computation.

One potential qubit technology, semiconductor electrically gated qubits could be built using silicon, but even here it is not clear whether the processing for classical logic would be compatible with that required for qubit fabrication.

**Benefits of Quantum Computing**

The following are some of the advantages of Quantum Computing. These benefits make this technology so desirable for our world.

**Speed**

Quantum Computers will deliver **enormous speed** for specific problems. Researchers are working to build algorithms. To find out and solve the problems suitable for quantum speed-ups.

**Computation**

The speed of quantum computers will improve many of our technologies. Especially, that need **immense computation power**. Like Machine Learning, 5G (and even faster internet speeds), bullet trains (and many other transport methods), and many more.

**Big Data**

Quantum computing is important in the current age of **Big Data. **As we need efficient computers to process the huge amount of data we are producing daily.

**Power Reduction**

Despite being computational, Quantum computers can **reduce power consumption.** From 100 to 1000 times they use Quantum tunneling.

**Quantum Computing Applications**

The following are some of the fields of online free quantum computing applications benefits. These can be applied to make them more efficient than ever.

**Artificial Intelligence**

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a key and one of the best technologies of quantum computing. The base of AI is on the concept of learning from experience. It is becoming more accurate depending on the feedback. Until the computer program begins to show “intelligence.” This feedback is based on estimating the probabilities for many possible choices. Thus, AI is an ideal candidate for quantum computing. It aims to change many industries. From cars to medicine, and in the future. AI will be what electricity was in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.about:blank

**Hardware and Software Error Simulation**

Large software programs with millions of lines of code or hardware systems with billions of transistors can be difficult. Also, expensive to verify for correctness. Billions or trillions of different states can exist. It is impracticable and impossible for a classical computer to check and simulate every single one.

Not only do we need to understand what is happening when the system operates in a normal manner. But we also want to know what happens if an error occurs. Can our device identify it and has a coping mechanism to reduce any potential problems? Through the use of quantum computing to assist with these simulations. One can hope to provide much better coverage of their simulations with an improved time.

**Cryptography**

Most online security systems nowadays depend on the complexity of factoring large numbers into primes. While this is possible by using digital computers to scan through every possible factor. The enormous amount of time needed makes it expensive and impractical to “crack the code.” Quantum computers can compute these factors are more efficient than digital computers. This means such methods of security will soon become obsolete. There are also innovative methods of quantum encryption. They are based on the one-way nature of quantum interdependence. Networks across cities have already been deployed in various countries.

**Data Analytics**

Quantum computing has the ability to solve problems on impressive scales. By engaging with complex material that might otherwise ignore. A particular field of study is called topological analysis. It helps to identify how certain geometric shapes behave in specific ways. In doing so, it describes computations that are more or less impossible to conjure onto conventional computers.With the introduction of a topological quantum computer, one can do simple calculations. Hence, making the process that much easier.

NASA in particular is diving into the idea to help them analyze huge clumps of data that they collect. Through this, they also hope to include themselves in research. About improved and safer methods of space exploration.

**Nanotechnology**

Through the introduction of quantum dots. Researchers hope to further improve their standards of nanotechnology. The ultimate goal is to improve health conditions in developing nations. While also introducing purification processes for various industries. While this is a field of research that scientists are into already. There still exists a wide gap that needs to look upon to quite by the introduction of quantum algorithms. They can ease the research process and also speed up results.

### Digital Security

In today’s digital world where almost every individual has massive amounts of personal data uploaded onto the cloud. There exists a growing need to improve security standards. In an attempt to help make the data more secure. Quantum Key Distribution or QKD is being put forward as a secure mechanism to tackle the issue of security. By helping users encrypt data. While also enabling them to share that with a limited number of resources. So not only can messages/data be secure. But also distributed among personnel thus helping with secure distribution.

## Conclusion

While technology already influences the above-mentioned fields. The quantum computing benefits and applications go on. The list is by no means complete and that is the most amazing part. As with all new technologies, applications that are currently unimaginable will be there. As the hardware keeps evolving and creating new opportunities.about:blank