ANALYZING CROSS SITE SCRIPTING

Cross-site Scripting (XSS)

xss

Cross-site scripting (also known as XSS) is a web security vulnerability that allows an attacker to compromise the interactions that users have with a vulnerable application. It allows an attacker to circumvent the same origin policy, which is designed to segregate different websites from each other. Cross-site scripting vulnerabilities normally allow an attacker to masquerade as a victim user, to carry out any actions that the user is able to perform, and to access any of the user’s data. If the victim user has privileged access within the application, then the attacker might be able to gain full control over all of the application’s functionality and data.

Cross-site Scripting (XSS) is a client-side code injection attack. The attacker aims to execute malicious scripts in a web browser of the victim by including malicious code in a legitimate web page or web application. The actual attack occurs when the victim visits the web page or web application that executes the malicious code. The web page or web application becomes a vehicle to deliver the malicious script to the user’s browser. Vulnerable vehicles that are commonly used for Cross-site Scripting attacks are forums, message boards, and web pages that allow comments.

A web page or web application is vulnerable to XSS if it uses unsanitized user input in the output that it generates. This user input must then be parsed by the victim’s browser. XSS attacks are possible in VBScript, ActiveX, Flash, and even CSS. However, they are most common in JavaScript, primarily because JavaScript is fundamental to most browsing experiences.

How does XSS work?

Cross-site scripting works by manipulating a vulnerable web site so that it returns malicious JavaScript to users. When the malicious code executes inside a victim’s browser, the attacker can fully compromise their interaction with the application.

What are the types of XSS attacks?

There are three main types of XSS attacks. These are:

  • Reflected, where the malicious script comes from the current HTTP request.
  • Store Xss, where the malicious script comes from the website’s database.
  • Dom-Based Xss, where the vulnerability exists in client-side code rather than server-side code.

Reflected Cross Site Scripting

Reflected Xss is the simplest variety of cross-site scripting. It arises when an application receives data in an HTTP request and includes that data within the immediate response in an unsafe way.

Here is a simple example of a Reflected Xss vulnerability:

<p>Status: All is well.</p>

The application doesn’t perform any other processing of the data, so an attacker can easily construct an attack like this:

<p>Status: <script>/* Bad stuff here... */</script></p>

If the user visits the URL constructed by the attacker, then the attacker’s script executes in the user’s browser, in the context of that user’s session with the application. At that point, the script can carry out any action, and retrieve any data, to which the user has access.

STORED CROSS SITE SCRIPTING

Stored Xss (also known as persistent or second-order XSS) arises when an application receives data from an untrusted source and includes that data within its later HTTP responses in an unsafe way.

The data in question might be submitted to the application via HTTP requests; for example, comments on a blog post, user nicknames in a chat room, or contact details on a customer order. In other cases, the data might arrive from other untrusted sources; for example, a webmail application displaying messages received over SMTP, a marketing application displaying social media posts, or a network monitoring application displaying packet data from network traffic.

Here is a simple example of a Stored Xss vulnerability. A message board application lets users submit messages, which are displayed to other users:

<p>Hello, this is my message!</p>

The application doesn’t perform any other processing of the data, so an attacker can easily send a message that attacks other users:

<p><script>/* Bad stuff here... */</script></p>

DOM-based cross-site scripting

DOM-based XSS (also known as DOM XSS) arises when an application contains some client-side JavaScript that processes data from an untrusted source in an unsafe way, usually by writing the data back to the DOM.

In the following example, an application uses some JavaScript to read the value from an input field and write that value to an element within the HTML:

var search = document.getElementById('search').value;
var results = document.getElementById('results');
results.innerHTML = 'You searched for: ' + search;

If the attacker can control the value of the input field, they can easily construct a malicious value that causes their own script to execute:

You searched for: <img src=1 onerror='/* Bad stuff here... */'>

In a typical case, the input field would be populated from part of the HTTP request, such as a URL query string parameter, allowing the attacker to deliver an attack using a malicious URL, in the same manner as reflected XSS.

How to prevent XSS attacks

Preventing cross-site scripting is trivial in some cases but can be much harder depending on the complexity of the application and the ways it handles user-controllable data.

In general, effectively preventing XSS vulnerabilities is likely to involve a combination of the following measures:

  • Filter input on arrival. At the point where user input is received, filter as strictly as possible based on what is expected or valid input.
  • Encode data on output. At the point where user-controllable data is output in HTTP responses, encode the output to prevent it from being interpreted as active content. Depending on the output context, this might require applying combinations of HTML, URL, JavaScript, and CSS encoding.
  • Use appropriate response headers. To prevent XSS in HTTP responses that aren’t intended to contain any HTML or JavaScript, you can use the Content-Type and X-Content-Type-Options headers to ensure that browsers interpret the responses in the way you intend.
  • Content Security Policy. As a last line of defense, you can use Content Security Policy (CSP) to reduce the severity of any XSS vulnerabilities that still occur.

Drop Your Comment Below.

https://instagram.com

Hits: 0

Related Post

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.