What is a programming Language?
A programming language is a set of commands, instructions, and other syntax use to create a software program. Languages that programmers use to write code are called “high-level languages.” This code can be compiled into a “low-level language,” which is recognized directly by the computer hardware.
A programming language is also a notation designed to connect instructions to a machine or a computer. Programming languages are mainly used to control the performance of a machine or to express algorithms. At present, thousand programming languages have been implemented. In the computer field, many languages need to be stated in an imperative form, while other programming languages utilize declarative form. The program can be divided into two forms such as syntax and semantics. Some languages are defined by an SO standard like C language.
TYPES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Functional Programming Language
Functional programming language typically uses stored data, frequently avoiding loops in favor of recursive functions.The functional programing’s primary focus is on the return values of functions, and side effects and different suggests that storing state are powerfully discouraged. For example, in an exceedingly pure useful language, if a function is termed, it’s expected that the function not modify or perform any o/p. It may, however, build algorithmic calls and alter the parameters of these calls. Functional languages are usually easier and build it easier to figure on abstract issues, however, they’ll even be “further from the machine” therein their programming model makes it difficult to know precisely, but the code is decoded into machine language (which are often problematic for system programming).
Procedural Programming Language
The procedural programming language is used to execute a sequence of statements which lead to a result. Typically, this type of programming language uses multiple variables, heavy loops and other elements, which separates them from functional programming languages. Functions of procedural language may control variables, other than function’s value returns. For example, printing out information.
Scripting Programming Language
These programming languages are often procedural and may comprise object-oriented language elements, but they fall into their own category as they are normally not full-fledged programming languages with support for development of large systems. For example, they may not have compile-time type checking. Usually, these languages require tiny syntax to get started.
Object-oriented Programming Language
This programming language views the world as a group of objects that have internal data and external accessing parts of that data. The aim this programming language is to think about the fault by separating it into a collection of objects that offer services which can be used to solve a specific problem. One of the main principle of object oriented programming language is encapsulation that everything an object will need must be inside of the object. This language also emphasizes reusability through inheritance and the capacity to spread current implementations without having to change a great deal of code by using polymorphism.
The Java language is a multi platform language that’s particularly helpful in networking. Of course, mostly this language is used on the web with Java applets. However, this language is used to design cross platform programs, Since it similar to C++ in structure and syntax. For C++ programmers, Java language is very easy to learn and it offers some advantages provided by object oriented programming. Like reusability and it can be difficult to write efficient code in Java. But, nowadays the speed of the Java language has increased and 1.5 version offers some good features for easy program making.
The PHP language is used to design web pages and sometimes it is also used as scripting language. This language is designed to develop a rapid website, and as a result comprises features which make it easy generate HTTP headers and link to databases. As a scripting language, it includes a set of components permit the programmer to easily get up to speed. However, it has more sophisticated object oriented features.
Perl language is a file management language for UNIX. But it is more popular for its common gateway interface programming (CGI). It is a term for programs that web servers can perform to allow additional capabilities of web pages. Pearl language is a method for searching text and it is used for useful server functions and other databases, and it is very easy to pick up the fundamentals if you have any experience in any language. As a CGi language, web hosting services select Perl language over C++ language. Because, the web hosts can review Perl script files. Since they are text files, when C++ is compiled.
Is an object-oriented computer programming language commonly used to create interactive effects within web browsers.
FEATURES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
The popularity of a programming language depends on the features and utilities it provides to programmers. The features that a programming language must have to stand out are the following:
- Simplicity: the language must offer clear and simple concepts that facilitate its learning and application, in a way that is simple to understand and maintain. Simplicity does not mean that it can be subtracted from the optimal power of functioning.
- Naturalness: this means that its application in the area for which it was designed must be done naturally, providing operators, structures and syntax for operators to work efficiently.
- Abstraction: it is the ability to define and use complicated structures or operations while ignoring some details, which influences writing ability.
- Efficiency: Programming languages must be translated and executed efficiently so as not to take up too much memory space or require too much time.
- Structuring: the language allows programmers to write their codes according to structured programming concepts, to avoid creating errors.
- Compactness: with this characteristic, it is possible to express operations concisely, without having to write too many details.
- Locality: refers to the codes concentrating on the part of the program with which you are working at a given time.
Programming language advantages
The programming languages are the formal constructed languages that designed to communicate the instructions to the machine, particularly the computer, and they can be used to create the programs to control the behavior of the machine or to express algorithms.
The programming Language is very productive to the program, It is very amazing to program if you understand it, You can get the money especially if you can build the website or in making a good application, It is very easy to program once you know the syntax of the programming language, and you will get new showcases in your work.
The programming codes are the instructions that are used to tell the computer what to do, Most programming languages are fairly easy to learn and use, You can make superb websites, All the websites and the applications started with a little code and then progressed over the time, and they can make you rich.
The programming languages allow simple creation and editing in the variety of text editors, They help you add dynamic and interactive activities to the web pages, You can edit and run the code very fast , You will get better at coding/programming over time, They help you perform the complex tasks in relatively few steps, and they need minimum programming knowledge or experience.
OOP languages (Object-Oriented Languages) provide you with clear modular structure for the programs which makes it good for defining abstract data types, They can modify the existing code, They offers good framework for the code libraries where the supplied software components can be easily adapted and modified by the programmer, and they are useful for developing the graphical user interfaces.
The computer programming languages are the languages that used to write computer programs which involve the computer performing some kind of computation or algorithm and they control the external devices such as the printers, disk drives & robots.
The programming languages differ from the natural languages in that the natural languages are only used for interaction between the people, while the programming languages allow the humans to communicate the instructions to the machines.
C language is the building block for many other currently known languages, It has a variety of data types and powerful operators, C program is basically the collection of functions that are supported by the C library, So you can add your own functions to C library, so, the programming task becomes simple, C language is the structured programming language.
C++ is well-suited for the large projects, It is efficient, C is a popular language especially in the game programming because it does not have the extra packaging of the object-oriented C++, The programmers use C as it makes the programs faster and smaller than the programs written in C++.
Pascal is a teaching language, there are few industrial programs that are written in Pascal, It tends to use the keywords instead of C-style braces and the symbols, so, it is easier for the beginners to understand than languages like C++
Fortran is the number-crunching program, it is still used by the scientists as it allows the variables of any size up to the memory limit of the machine, It is not nearly as flexible as C or C++, and the programming is rigid by it .
Java is the multi-platform language which is useful in the networking, the most famous usage of Java is on the web, It is used to build cross-platform programs that stand alone, learning Java is quite easy for most C++ programmers.
PHP is designed for a rapid website development, It is easy to link to the databases, generate HTTP headers, It contains a simple set of basic components that allow the programmer to quickly get up to speed.
LISP is the functional language used, It is mostly in the computer science research, It stores all the data in lists, but without index numbers, Object-Oriented Languages offer small changes that are uncomplicated in the data representation, The objects can be maintained separately, and they can be reused in different programs.
Procedural Languages are easy to read the program code, They are easily maintainable program code as various procedures can be debugged in isolation, The code is more flexible as you can change a specific procedure that gets implemented across the program.
Programming language disadvantages
The bugs can get annoying and they are hard to solve sometimes, If you are not good at math then it will not easy to program, Lots of thinking involved, If you don’t have a good memory, then it will be hard to memorize the syntax of the programming language
If you type the programming slowly, You will take much time to program something, You can type lots of code in seconds since you know the syntax, but it requires thinking and logic, Some programming languages are hard to learn.
C Language does not have concept of OOPs, that’s why C++ is developed, There is no run time checking in C language, There is no strict type checking, You can pass an integer value, It is used for the floating data type, It doesn’t have the concept of namespace, It doesn’t have the concept of constructor or destructor.
Object-Oriented Languages must be well managed, The Instance (or shared class) variables of an object can be accessed by the class-specialized functions, They are not as effective on the simple programs.
The procedural Languages are hard to apply code from one program to another, Modifying one part of the code requires modification of the entire code, As the code grows, It gets harder to understand and modify, The functional Languages can’t do IO, They can not interact with the outside world , And no guarantee first line of code will be executed before second.
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