What Is Peer To Peer Network Architecture

peer to peer

WHAT IS A NETWORK?

A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the network nodes

A computer network is essentially a connection of two or more devices utilizing a channel in order to exchange information. A computer network allows you to quickly send and receive data to and from a computing device.
There are some very important features of Computer Networks, and we will go over them one by one in detail:

Features of Computer Network

1. Scalability:

Scalability refers to the ability to add new network components. The network must be scalable in order for us to expand it by adding more devices. However, it reduces the speed of the connection and the data transfer speed, which raises the possibilities of an error happening. A solution to this issue is using routing or switching devices.

For example, if a network currently has 100 devices, ease of scalability would mean that we can add another 100 devices or more as and when required by not having to modify the existing network too much.

2. Software and Hardware Sharing/Compatibility:

We may put the apps on the main server, allowing the user to access the applications from a single location. As a result, we do not need to install the program on each system. Hardware sharing happens in a similar manner.

A computer network should not require all computers in a computer network to utilise the same software and hardware; rather, it should allow for improved portability between diverse software and hardware configurations.

3. Data and File Sharing:

One of the reasons we use a computer network is to transfer data between different systems that are linked together via a transmission medium.

This technique distributes private data, information, and files among numerous systems linked by guided (cables) or unguided (waves) transmission means.

4. Performance:

The response time of a computer network determines its performance. The time taken for sending and receiving data from one node (a computer in a computer network is sometimes referred to as a node) to another should be as short as possible.

5. Backup:

A central server must be established for the computer network, and this server must maintain a backup of all data exchanged across the network. And, in the event of a network outage, this central server aids in speedier recovery.

Thus, retrieving a backup of lost data is simple and easy.

6. Security:

Security is one of the most important aspects of computer networks. As a result, a computer network should be secure so that data transmitted over the network is protected from unwanted access.

Furthermore, the data supplied by the sending node should arrive exactly as it is at the receiving node, which implies there should be no data loss during transmission.

Unauthorized users or hackers should not be able to access the data exchanged on the network.

7. Reliability:

Computer networks are dependable because they enable other methods for data and file exchange across computers in the event of hardware failure or connection issues.

If a network failure occurs, data recovery should be as quick as possible.

8. Communication Speed:

Networks give a quick and easy means for a group of individuals to communicate with one another. Some of the benefits of networks include email messaging, IP telephony, video conferencing, and so on.

9. Fault Tolerance:

Fault Tolerance refers to the capacity to continue operating despite faults and to ensure zero loss of services.

Assume your PC is linked to a wireless router, and this router connects to two additional routers, which in turn connect to the web server.

Now, if you browse for a link or a website, but your wireless router loses its connection with one of the routers, then the wireless router will establish a new connection with the other router and submit the request to the web server.

10. Quality of Service (QoS):

Quality of Service is the capacity to set priorities and control data flow in order to prevent data loss, delay, and other issues.

DEFINITION OF PEER TO PEER NETWORK

In its simplest form, a peer-to-peer (P2P) network is created when two or more PCs are connected and share resources without going through a separate server computer. A P2P network can be an ad hoc connection—a couple of computers connected via a Universal Serial Bus to transfer files. A P2P network also can be a permanent infrastructure that links a half-dozen computers in a small office over copper wires. Or a P2P network can be a network on a much grander scale in which special protocols and applications set up direct relationships among users over the Internet.

Peer-to-peer architecture (P2P architecture) is a commonly used computer networking architecture in which each workstation, or node, has the same capabilities and responsibilities. It is often compared and contrasted to the classic client/server architecture, in which some computers are dedicated to serving others.

P2P may also be used to refer to a single software program designed so that each instance of the program may act as both client and server, with the same responsibilities and status.

P2P networks have many applications, but the most common is for content distribution. This includes software publication and distribution, content delivery networks, streaming media and peercasting for multicasting streams, which facilitates on-demand content delivery. Other applications involve science, networking, search and communication networks. Even the U.S. Department of Defense has started researching applications for P2P networks for modern network warfare strategies.

P2P architecture is often referred to as a peer-to-peer network.

P2P applications are one of the core issues in the controversy over network neutrality – a principle that advocates no restrictions on Internet content, format, technologies, equipment or modes of communication. P2P proponents argue that governments and large Internet service providers are attempting to control Internet use and content by directing network structure toward a client/server architecture. This sets up financial barriers for individuals and small publishers looking to gain Internet entry and sets up inefficiencies for sharing large files.

There are three models of unstructured P2P computer network architecture:

  • Pure P2P
  • Hybrid P2P
  • Centralized P2P

In structured P2P computer network architecture, workstations (peers), and sometimes resources as well, are organized according to specific criteria and algorithms. This leads to overlays with specific topologies and properties.

Assessing some of the advantages and weaknesses of P2P networking involves comparisons with client/server architecture. P2P networks have clients with resources such as bandwidth, storage space and processing power. As more demand is put on the system through each node, the capacity of the whole system increases. (This accounts for the enormous increase of system security and file verification mechanisms, making most P2P networks resistant to almost any type of attack.) By comparison, a typical client/server network shares demands but not resources. As additional clients join the system, fewer resources become available to each one.

A peer-to-peer network is an information technology (IT) infrastructure allowing two or more computer systems to connect and share resources without requiring a separate server or server software Workplaces may set up a P2P network by physically connecting computers into a linked system or creating a virtual network. You can also set up computers to be the clients and servers of their network.

FEATURES OF PEER TO PEER NETWORK

A peer-to-peer (p2p) network provides a scalable and fault-tolerant mechanism to locate nodes anywhere on a network without maintaining large amount of routing state. This allows for a variety of applications beyond simple file sharing, including in multicast systems, anonymous communications systems, and web caches.

In a peer-to-peer network, computers on the network are equal, with each workstation providing access to resources and data. This is a simple type of network where computers are able to communicate with one another and share what is on or attached to their computer with other users.

Peer to peer networks are usually formed by groups of a dozen or less computers. These computers all store their data using individual security but also share data with all the other nodes. The nodes in peer to peer networks both use resources and provide resources.

What are the examples of P2P network?

Unstructured peer-to-peer networks do not impose a particular structure on the overlay network by design, but rather are formed by nodes that randomly form connections to each other. (Gnutella, Gossip, and Kazaa are examples of unstructured P2P protocols).

FEATURES OF PEER TO PEER NETWORK

peer-to-peer (p2pnetwork provides a scalable and fault-tolerant mechanism to locate nodes anywhere on a network without maintaining large amount of routing state. This allows for a variety of applications beyond simple file sharing, including in multicast systems, anonymous communications systems, and web caches.

other characteristics includes:

  • scalability.
  • one way data flow.
  • decentralized resources.
  • centralized user accounts.
  • resource sharing without a dedicated server.

What are the basic requirements for peer to peer network?

The only requirements for a computer to join a peer-to-peer network are an Internet connection and P2P software. Common P2P software programs include Kazaa, Limewire, BearShare, Morpheus, and Acquisition.

Peer-to-Peer Network: advantages and disadvantages

AdvantagesDisadvantages
No need for a network operating systemBecause each computer might be being accessed by others it can slow down the performance for the user
Does not need an expensive server because individual workstations are used to access the filesFiles and folders cannot be centrally backed up
No need for specialist staff such as network technicians because each user sets their own permissions as to which files they are willing to share.Files and resources are not centrally organised into a specific ‘shared area’. They are stored on individual computers and might be difficult to locate if the computer’s owner doesn’t have a logical filing system.
Much easier to set up than a client-server network – does not need specialist knowledgeEnsuring that viruses are not introduced to the network is the responsibility of each individual user
If one computer fails it will not disrupt any other part of the network. It just means that those files aren’t available to other users at that time.There is little or no security besides the permissions. Users often don’t need to log onto their workstations.

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