WHAT IS COMPUTER PROGRAMMING?
Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a specific task
Computer programming is the process that professionals use to write code that instructs how a computer, application or software program performs. At its most basic, computer programming is a set of instructions to facilitate specific actions. If you’re wondering what a computer programmer is, it’s a professional that creates instructions for a computer to execute by writing and testing code that enables applications and software programs to operate successfully.
Computers can do amazing things, from basic laptops capable of simple word processing and spreadsheet functions to incredibly complex supercomputers completing millions of financial transactions a day and controlling the infrastructure that makes modern life possible. But no computer can do anything until a computer programmer tells it to behave in specific ways. That’s what computer programming is all about.
At its most basic, computer programming is little more than a set of instructions to facilitate specific actions. Based on the requirements or purposes of these instructions, computer programming can be as simple as adding two numbers. It can also be as complex as reading data from temperature sensors to adjust a thermostat, sorting data to complete intricate scheduling or critical reports or taking players through multi-layered worlds and challenges in games.
WHAT IS COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE?
A Computer programming language is a formal language comprising a set of strings that produce various kinds of machine code output. Programming languages are one kind of computer language, and are used in computer programming to implement algorithms. Most programming languages consist of instructions for computers
TYPPES OF COMPUTYER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Procedural Programming Language
The procedural programming language is used to execute a sequence of statements which lead to a result. Typically, this type of programming language uses multiple variables, heavy loops and other elements, which separates them from functional programming languages. Functions of procedural language may control variables, other than function’s value returns. For example, printing out information.
Functional Programming Language
Functional programming language typically uses stored data, frequently avoiding loops in favor of recursive functions.The functional programing’s primary focus is on the return values of functions, and side effects and different suggests that storing state are powerfully discouraged. For example, in an exceedingly pure useful language, if a function is termed, it’s expected that the function not modify or perform any o/p. It may, however, build algorithmic calls and alter the parameters of these calls. Functional languages are usually easier and build it easier to figure on abstract issues, however, they’ll even be “further from the machine” therein their programming model makes it difficult to know precisely, but the code is decoded into machine language (which are often problematic for system programming)
Object-oriented Programming Language
This programming language views the world as a group of objects that have internal data and external accessing parts of that data. The aim this programming language is to think about the fault by separating it into a collection of objects that offer services which can be used to solve a specific problem. One of the main principle of object oriented programming language is encapsulation that everything an object will need must be inside of the object. This language also emphasizes reusability through inheritance and the capacity to spread current implementations without having to change a great deal of code by using polymorphism.
Scripting Programming Language
These programming languages are often procedural and may comprise object-oriented language elements, but they fall into their own category as they are normally not full-fledged programming languages with support for development of large systems. For example, they may not have compile-time type checking. Usually, these languages require tiny syntax to get started.
Logic Programming Language
These types of languages let programmers make declarative statements and then allow the machine to reason about the consequences of those statements. In a sense, this language doesn’t tell the computer how to do something, but employing restrictions on what it must consider doing.
To call these groups ” types of language ” is really a bit confusing. It’s easy to program in an object-oriented style in C language. In truth, most of the languages include ideas and features from various domains, which only helps to increase the usefulness of these types of languages. Nevertheless, most of the programming languages do not best in all styles of programming.
The Difference Between Different Programming Languages
The C++ language has an object oriented structure which is used in large projects. Programmers can collaborate one program into different parts or even one individual work on each part of the program. The structure of object oriented also permit code to be reused many times.This language is an efficient language. But, many programmers will disagree
The C language is a basic programming language and it is a very popular language, particularly used in game programming, Because C language includes the additional packing of the C++, Every programmer uses this language because it makes programs faster . However the value of this language gives the reusability of C++ to get the slight increase in performance with C language.
Pascal language is mostly a teaching language and few industries uses this language to write the programs. This language tends to use keywords instead of symbols and braces in C language. So this language is very easy for beginners to understand than a programming language like C, C++. Borland is a compiler software company, which is using Delphi programming language for industrial strength. Delphi is an object oriented language of Pascal, and presently Borland compilers only use it.
Fortran language is a number crunching language and still it is used by scientists. This language allows different sizes of variables up to the memory limit in the machine. This language is suitable for engineers, who have to calculate values with high precision. Program in Fortran is inflexible and sometimes it makes difficult to read.
The Java language is a multi platform language that’s particularly helpful in networking. Of course, mostly this language is used on the web with Java applets. However, this language is used to design cross platform programs, Since it similar to C++ in structure and syntax. For C++ programmers, Java language is very easy to learn and it offers some advantages provided by object oriented programming. Like reusability and it can be difficult to write efficient code in Java. But, nowadays the speed of the Java language has increased and 1.5 version offers some good features for easy program making.
Perl language is a file management language for UNIX. But it is more popular for its common gateway interface programming (CGI). It is a term for programs that web servers can perform to allow additional capabilities of web pages. Pearl language is a method for searching text and it is used for useful server functions and other databases, and it is very easy to pick up the fundamentals if you have any experience in any language. As a CGi language, web hosting services select Perl language over C++ language. Because, the web hosts can review Perl script files. Since they are text files, when C++ is compiled.
The PHP language is used to design web pages and sometimes it is also used as scripting language. This language is designed to develop a rapid website, and as a result comprises features which make it easy generate HTTP headers and link to databases. As a scripting language, it includes a set of components permit the programmer to easily get up to speed. However, it has more sophisticated object oriented features.
LISP language is mostly used in computer science research and it stores all data in lists such as arrays. The syntax of list is very simple and easy to make for developers to implement structures.
The scheme language is an alternate of LISP language, and it has a simpler syntax and features. Any project under the scheme language will result in the re implementation of most of the LISP language. But, this is very popular introductory language in the computer science department of MIT’s. This language easily solves the problems instead of worrying about syntaxes of programming language.
WHAT IS PHP PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE?
PHP is a general-purpose server scripting language geared towards web development. It was originally created by Danish-Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. The PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group
PHP (recursive acronym for
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) is a widely-used open source general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for web development and can be embedded into HTML.
Nice, but what does that mean? An example:
Example #1 An introductory example
echo "Hi, I'm a PHP script!";
Instead of lots of commands to output HTML (as seen in C or Perl), PHP pages contain HTML with embedded code that does “something” (in this case, output “Hi, I’m a PHP script!”). The PHP code is enclosed in special start and end processing instructions
?> that allow you to jump into and out of “PHP mode.”
The best things in using PHP are that it is extremely simple for a newcomer, but offers many advanced features for a professional programmer. Don’t be afraid reading the long list of PHP’s features. You can jump in, in a short time, and start writing simple scripts in a few hours.
PHP is a server side scripting language that is embedded in HTML. It is used to manage dynamic content, databases, session tracking, even build entire e-commerce sites. It is integrated with a number of popular databases, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, and Microsoft SQL Server.
PHP’s main Features
It is most prevalent and every now and again utilized overall scripting dialect, the fundamental reason of notoriety is; It is open source and exceptionally straightforward.
It is very simple and easy to use, compared to another scripting language it is very simple and easy, this is widely used all over the world.
It is an interpreted language, i.e. there is no need for compilation.
It is faster than other scripting languages e.g. asp and jsp.
Open source means you no need to pay for using PHP, you can free download and use.
PHP code will be run on every platform, Linux, Unix, Mac OS X, Windows.
PHP is case sensitive scripting language at the time of variable declaration. In PHP, all keywords (e.g. if, else, while, echo, etc.), classes, functions, and user-defined functions are NOT case-sensitive.
Speed Comparision of ASP PHP JSP
PHP is faster than other scripting languages e.g. asp and jsp.
The Top 6 Advantages of PHP –
Although most web developers have a range of scripting languages, such as CGI, ASP, JSP, and Perl, most tend to favor PHP. There are several reasons why this programming language is at the forefront of website development –
1. Easy and Simple to Learn
PHP is considered one of the easiest scripting languages. Compared to other web languages, PHP doesn’t require a manual or intensive studying. PHP syntax is logical and well-organized. Even command functions are easy to understand, as they tell the developer what function they perform. As a result, web developers find it very easy to create and optimize the application.
2. Extremely Flexible
PHP is highly flexible whether it is during an ongoing project or after completing the project. Flexibility in a scripting language is very crucial, as functionality can change anytime during the course of a project. The best part about PHP is the ability to make changes even after starting the project and this saves valuable time.
A developer does not have to write fresh codes or command functions, as changes to the existing codes and functions can be done and used.
3. Easy Integration and Compatibility
PHP is compatible with a large majority of operating systems. It can easily run on different platforms, including UNIX, Solaris, and Linux. As it can be integrated without effort with other technologies, such as Java, existing software does not require re-development. This saves time and money.
4. Efficient Performance
Depending on how the web developer codes, PHP has the potential to turn in an efficient language. It is scalable when used for writing codes and can also be used for creating a large number of applications. It is the programming language of choice when a website has several web pages.
PHP is an open-source web language, hence is completely free. There is no expense involved in purchasing expensive licenses or software. It can work efficiently with different databases, such as MySQL, Apache, and PostgreSQL. The cost of developing a website using PHP is minimal.
6. Gives Web Developer More Control
Compared to other programming languages, PHP allows the website developer to have more control. Other programming languages are bogged down by long, complicated scripts, but this isn’t true for PHP. A few simple lines of code are sufficient. Furthermore, PHP allows tags, and hence, website developers can add and/or mix HTML tags, making the content extremely dynamic.
Developers don’t have to worry about placing codes in the right place when using PHP, as it is written between tags. Hence, functions and codes do not have to be written in any specific order, as long as they are within the tags.
PHP has a very helpful, active, and widespread PHP community. Also, this scripting language offers a lot of resources, such as commands, functions, and codes, which can easily be rewritten and used without incurring any cost. The ease of use, easy integration, cost efficiency, and easy access makes PHP one of the most popular server-side programming languages.
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