Role Of Ict In National Development

WHAT IS ICT?

Information and communications technology is an extensional term for information technology that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications and computers .

CT, or information and communications technology (or technologies), is the infrastructure  and components that enable modern computing.

Although there is no single, universal definition of ICT, the term is generally accepted to mean all devices, networking components applications and systems that combined allow people and organizations (i.e., businesses, nonprofit agencies, governments and criminal enterprises) to interact in the digital world.

Components of an ICT system

ICT encompasses both the internet-enabled sphere as well as the mobile one powered by wireless networks. It also includes antiquated technologies, such as landline telephones, radio and television broadcast — all of which are still widely used today alongside cutting-edge ICT pieces such as artificial intelligence and robotics

ICT is sometimes used synonymously with IT (for information technology); however, ICT is generally used to represent a broader, more comprehensive list of all components related to computer and digital technologies than IT.

The list of ICT components is exhaustive, and it continues to grow. Some components, such as computers and telephones, have existed for decades. Others, such as smartphones digital TVs and robots are more recent entries.

ICT commonly means more than its list of components, though. It also encompasses the application of all those various components. It’s here that the real potential, power and danger of ICT can be found.

ICT Skills

Email Management and Setup

Being able to effectively and successfully communication via email is critical to any job. You will need to send emails to colleagues, employers, clients, vendors, and so on. Companies expect their employees to write professional and well written emails, as well as respond promptly to messages received in their inboxes.

Depending on the level of expertise required by your employer, you may also need to be able to manage settings or set up email accounts on various work devices.https://a50bab429ec1137e654c3c6b42a0d7a1.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

  • MS Outlook
  • Gmail and G-Suite
  • SendinBlue Email
  • Groove
  • Front
  • Zoho Mail
  • Written Communication
  • Digital Signatures
  • Stationary Settings
  • Out of the Office Settings
  • Spam Settings
  • Inbox Management
  • Creating Rules

Online Research

Almost every job requires at least some online research. Whether you are looking up new lesson plans in a subject or checking out the latest news on your company’s competitor, you need to be able to sift through all the information online to find what you need. This involves basic online information management skills.https://a50bab429ec1137e654c3c6b42a0d7a1.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

  • Search Engine Research
  • Checking Sources
  • Crediting Sources
  • FAQs
  • Online Forums

Social Media Management

Some jobs require you to use social media. For example, many people working in marketing tend to manage or update a company’s social media presence. Even if this is not a critical part of your job, employers increasingly look for employees with basic social media literacy. The more you know about the benefits of and limits to social media, the more you can begin to use that media in valuable ways at work.

  • Facebook
  • LinkedIn
  • Pinterest
  • Instagram
  • YouTube
  • Twitter
  • Reddit
  • Social Media Groups

Online Collaboration

Online collaboration is a broad category that refers to any means of sharing information with your coworkers (or supervisors, or clients) online. This includes adding a meeting to a shared online calendar, providing feedback on a document through a web-based document application, and holding an online video conference with colleagues.

  • Video Conferencing Software
  • Skype
  • GoToMeeting
  • Instant Messaging
  • Google Docs
  • File Sharing
  • DropBox Pro
  • Slack
  • Google Hangouts
  • Zoom

Data Management and Queries

From researchers to administrative assistants to K-12 teachers, almost everyone needs to be able to develop and manage data using spreadsheets. Furthermore, they have to be able to analyze that data and recognize trends and patterns. Fluency in programs like Microsoft excel is critical in today’s job market.

  • MS Excel
  • Filters
  • SQL
  • NoSQL
  • MySQL
  • Quantitative Analysis

Desktop Publishing

Desktop publishing involves the creation of materials that need to be printed and distributed. These might include fliers, brochures, newsletters, and more. Because you can create so much using desktop publishing software, many jobs require you to have some basic skills in this field. While people with a creative, artistic eye might be particularly good at desktop publishing, anyone can get better with practice.

  • MS Publisher
  • MS PowerPoint
  • MS Word
  • Print Settings
  • Adobe Creative Suite
  • QuarkXPress

Smartphones and Tablets

Many employers require that their employees use smartphones and tablets; they might even issue particular phones to employees or state that workers must be accessible by email during certain hours. For these reasons, it is important to know how to use a smartphone.

  • iPhone
  • Android Devices
  • Samsung Smartphones
  • Blackberry Devices
  • iPad
  • Samsung Tablets
  • CAT S41
  • Panasonic ToughPad

Word Processing

In this day and age, it is expected that job candidates know how to use word processing technology. Candidates need to be able to produce written documents (including business letters, meeting minutes, and more) using a computer processor such as Microsoft Word.

  • MS Word
  • Libre Office Writer
  • Transcription
  • Typing
  • Note Taking

How to Boost Your ICT Skills

Do you feel that your ICT skills are not as good as you want them to be? Is there a particular skill you are struggling with? Here are some tips to boost your skills and get ready for the job market:

  • Practice using technology. If you already have some of the basic skills listed above, you might consider simply using them more often. For example, if you want to get better at using Skype or Zoom before an interview, simply practice using the video conferencing technology. Ask a friend to pretend to be the interviewer, and do a mock online interview The more you practice, the more confident you will feel when you use this technology when it counts for the job.
  • Ask a friend. You could also ask a friend who is more skilled in a particular technology to help you develop your skills. For example, if you aren’t comfortable using your smartphone, ask someone you know (who uses their phone a lot) for some basic tips.
  • Watch a (free) tutorial. There are many free online tutorials on how to use certain technologies. Some of these are on YouTube or can be found via a quick Google search. Others can be found on company sites. For example, check out Microsoft’s tutorials and PDFs with tips for using certain products.
  • Attend a (free) class. Check with your local community college or public library to see if they offer classes on computer literacy or ICT skills. Many of these are free or available at a discount for local residents. However, before you spend money on a class, try some of the free strategies first.

ICT Careers and Job Types

It’s good to know the different career streams available in information technology (IT) and information and communications technology (ICT). Each job has a distinctive set of required skills and personal traits.

Almost all IT jobs depend on strong technical knowledge. But each has a different emphasis, whether the job centres on coding, managing hardware, applying software, data science or managing systems or people.

This list of 22 careers and major job types was constructed by researching which jobs require an IT background. Having an IT or similar degree would be an asset for each career. Also check out the online courses shown towards the end of the page.

Business Analyst

Business analyst's presentation

Business analysts examine an organisation (or part of a business) to determine how to better achieve goals. Almost always, there’s a strong information technology component. That’s because IT is integral to modern business operations. For example, analysts may scope out the potential effects of changing computer software. Analysts need to be adaptable because job requirements vary from company to company. To become a business analyst, you’ll probably need to obtain an entry-level position in the field and build a career from there. Business education in addition to advanced IT training confers an advantage.

Job titles: business analyst, business and technology analyst, business development manager (ICT/networking), ICT business analyst, IT continuity risk analyst, manager (business systems maintenance), pre-sales customer technology strategist, reporting analyst, reporting and insights specialist, senior data business analyst, senior digital reporting analyst, senior forecast analyst, senior insights analyst, team leader (IT business systems).

Computer Service Technician

Computer service technicians (also referred to as computer repair technicians) repair computer hardware and software. Some of the common tasks are replacing defective components, removing spyware and viruses, dissembling hardware, and running diagnostic tests. If a job in this field is your goal, start getting as much experience as you can in assembling and repairing computers. CompTIA A+ certification is a helpful qualification. Also consider completing a program at a tech school or college.

Job descriptions: CSI technician, computer service technician, field technician, ICT service technician, ICT support technician, IT support technician, IT systems technician, onsite support technician.

Cyber Security Specialist

Cyber security specialist at computer

Cyber security specialists protect the security of computer systems and networks. They need broad technical knowledge since security is an important consideration across most parts of a modern computer system. An IT-related degree is normally required for cyber security specialist jobs. Experience is critical for all but graduate or assistant positions, and certifications may give you a strong advantage over other applicants. Cyber security specialists enjoy an excellent average salary. Demonstrated expertise in a difficult field can place you in a commanding career position.

Job titles: cyber security analyst, deputy director (operational cyber security), director (service operations and security), ICT risk and security specialist, ICT security analyst, ICT security specialist, information security manager, information security officer, IT security consultant, IT security engineer, IT security operations officer, IT security operations specialist, IT security specialist, security sales specialist (cyber security), senior systems officer (security).

Data Analyst

Data analysts

These professionals develop insight and gain information through the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. They work for businesses and other types of organizations, identifying and helping to solve problems. As a data analyst, you’ll use programming and computer software skills to complete statistical analysis of data. If you want to start a career as a data analyst, learn some programming languages and get a bachelor’s degree in Information Technology and Data Analysis.

Job titles: academic data analyst, associate data analyst, data analyst, data analyst – digital, data classification analyst, data quality analyst, digital data analyst, junior data analyst, marketing data analyst, master data analyst, people data analyst, privacy and data protection senior analyst, property data analyst, senior data analyst.

Data Centre Technician

As a data centre technician, you’re instrumental in maintaining computer hardware networks and data servers. The data centre technician is necessary to keep a company’s data safe and secure. Duties and responsibilities include:

  • Server repair and management
  • Maintain equipment to prevent problems
  • Monitoring system processes
  • Protect data through cross-collaboration
  • Providing technical education and support

To thrive as a data centre technician, you need skills in IT computer networking, hardware repair, troubleshooting and inventory management. You also need top-notch communication skills, including expertise in technical writing. In this career, you need to be able to work on your feet for long stretches and carry heavy-ish objects.

Most employers strongly prefer candidates with either a bachelor or associate’s degree in a relevant technology field.

Job descriptions: data centre technician, data centre technician lead, data centre technician lead, data centre IT support engineer, data centre facility management, data centre operations manager, entry level data centre technician, technical applications technician, technical consultant

Data Scientist

Data scientist pro

A data scientist is in the same broad career stream as a data analyst (see above). Perhaps the main different is that data scientists are expected to use advanced programming skills more routinely. They don’t just gain insights from data, but also do things like building complex behavioural models using big data.

You can transition from being a data analyst to a data scientist. A master’s degree in data science is a way to get into this line of work.

Job titles: data analyst / scientist, data engineer, data science consultant, data scientist, data scientist – machine learning, director – data science, junior data analyst / scientist, lead data scientist, lecturer – data science, senior data analyst / scientist.

Database Administrator

Database administrators (DBAs) handle database security, integrity, and performance. They ensure data standards are consistent, data is accessible by users as needed, and they solve any problems encountered by users. These professionals might also be involved in database planning and development. A degree in an IT-related field is usually required and it’s useful to have programming experience. Experienced DBAs have strong applied knowledge of database operating systems and technologies.

Job titles: database administrator, e-health systems administrator, ICT database administrator, information management officer, senior information management specialist.

Database Analyst

Database analysts design, evaluate, review, and implement databases. In doing so, they organise and analyse collected information. They’re often hired to update and maintain existing databases. To gain employment in this field, you generally need a degree in computer science or another IT field. Software development experience is also required for some jobs. Useful strengths include data modelling, database queries creation, and PHP, HTML, CSS, Javascript and SQL programming languages.

Job titles: asset knowledge systems analyst, data analyst and information manager, database analyst, database coordinator/analyst.

Hardware Engineer

Hardware engineers (also referred to as computer hardware engineers) oversee the manufacture and installation of computer systems, servers, circuit boards, and chips, as well as the testing of equipment. They also work with routers, printers, and keyboards. People wanting a career in this lucrative field require a degree in computer engineering. Depending on the employer, a degree in electrical engineering or computer science might be an acceptable alternative. Creativity and good communications skills are useful complements to technical skills.

Job titles: computer hardware engineer, hardware engineer, hardware test engineer, research assistant/junior engineer.

IT Consultant

IT consultant

IT consultants are professionals with significant IT experience and the confidence to find work by competing for service contracts. While they’re often independent contractors, regular employment is sometimes available with large manufacturers of software and computing equipment; software and systems houses; and management consultancy firms. IT consultants can find clients across most industries. You can choose to specialise in fields such as security, software for a specific market, internet solutions, or web design.

Job descriptions: associate technical specialist, environmental management information systems (emis) consultant, ICT contracts specialist, ICT project support officer, ICT security consultant, IT consultant, Oracle application technical consultant, senior IT recruitment consultant, senior technical specialist, senior technology specialist, test consultant.

IT Manager

IT manager

IT managers are responsible for the electronic networks and IT teams of organisations. They ensure information system requirements are fulfilled. The job can be mainly supervisory at senior levels within large organisations. For small business, it can instead be very hands on. IT managers can work within organisations or as consultants doing discrete projects. Several years of experience in the field is normally required to take on a senior role and you can benefit from doing an IT management masters.

Job titles: chief technology manager, client delivery manager, ICT category manager, ICT coordinator, ICT project manager, ICT program director, ICT procurement officer, ICT resource officer, information and communication technology (ICT) officer, information technology coordinator, IT administrator, IT manager, IT project administrator, project manager (information systems), program director, technical operations manager.

Multimedia Developer

Multimedia developers are skilled in computer programming and visual artistry. They design software and create multimedia applications by generating and manipulating animations, graphic images, text, sound, and video. Some examples of applications include multimedia presentations, educational and entertainment products, and computer-based interactive training. You might consider this career if you’re an IT-graduate strong in visual arts. While a degree is useful, many people also start work in the field with only a relevant certificate.

Job titles: digital content producer, eContent development specialist, multimedia coordinator, multimedia developer, multimedia producer, multimedia specialist, software developer, web producer.

Network Administrator

This professional manages and troubleshoots computer networks. The network administrator is responsible for organising and maintaining computer systems. He or she is often at the highest level of an organisation’s technical staff. To become a network administrator, you’ll need a degree in an IT-related field. Employers also look for network-specific experience. Specialised certification in network administration might also be required. Most professionals in this area complete high-level training in specific hardware or software used in the network.

Job titles: ICT network and systems administrator, network administrator, network and systems administrator, network infrastructure administrator.

Network Engineer

Network engineers design and set up networks. Duties may include placing physical equipment, setting up electronic equipment needed to activate equipment, and determining the appropriate antenna to ensure the best possible coverage. A career in this field frequently requires a computer science or closely related degree. Specialised certification is worth pursuing as it gives you an advantage in job search. Network engineers enjoy impressive salaries.

Job titles: ICT network and systems engineer, network engineer, network project specialist, senior network engineer.

Programmer

Computer programmer

While software developers design applications, it’s programmers who write the code needed for programs to function. Programmers also test software and update existing software. Many are employed by software companies. Necessary soft skills include problem solving, reading comprehension, active listening, attention to detail, and critical thinking. You might consider entering this field if you enjoy working with code for extended periods and testing the power of programming languages. As experience is an important asset, it’s helpful to do an internship or gain other hands-on experience while completing your formal education.

Job titles: digital back end developer, game programmer, graduate analyst / programmer, machine programmer, programmer, SAS programmer, senior analyst programmer, SQL programmer, test consultant, UI programmer.

Software Analyst

Software analysts bring software solutions to the people. They are the ones who connect the work of software developers to the use of software in the workplace. They help organisations develop software solutions to fit their needs. To succeed in this field, you should be strong at both computer programming and dealing with people. Many software analyst jobs require a degree in computer science or a related discipline. Some employers might additionally ask for expertise in the industry (such as finance or healthcare). A related role to software analysis is ICT software sales.

Job titles: enterprise solution architect, ICT sales representative, implementation analyst, lead application analyst, national applications specialist, research intelligence analyst, senior application analyst, software analyst.

Software Developer

Software developer

Employers may use the term “software developer” interchangeably with “software engineer”. However, be aware that a “software engineering” job might specifically require you to apply engineering principles to software creation. Professionals in software development create and build out software. They provide detailed instructions and guidelines for the programmers who write the code. Occasionally, developers will code themselves. A bachelor’s degree is required for most positions in this field, which produces excellent salaries.

Job titles: applications support engineer, data visualisation developer, enterprise reporting and ETL developer, ICT applications development specialist, ICT engineer, ICT senior drupal developer, python developer, python/integration developer, senior software engineer, senior user experience designer, software application integrator, software developer, software engineer, team leader (applications support), technical lead (applications delivery).

Systems Administrator

Systems administrators (or managers) configure, maintain, and ensure the continued reliability of computer systems. They mostly deal with multi-use computers, including severs. An organisation’s system administrator manages IT infrastructure, including servers and network equipment. The role is essential to the successful operation of any company with a computer system. A degree in a field such as information technology or computer science is often required for administrator positions.

Job titles: client services and information officer, ICT network and systems administrator, ICT systems administrator, ICT systems manager, information and user support officer, linux systems administrator, people systems administrator, senior Windows system administrator, software administrator, systems administrator, system administration support officer, systems operation manager.

Systems Analyst

Systems analysts use their expertise to introduce computer systems, or to modify existing systems as a way to boost technical efficiency and business productivity. For a given job, the starting point may be to assess the client’s system requirements. You then formulate solutions based on the latest technologies and considering the budget constraint. A computer science, information management systems, or other IT-related degree is necessary to make you competitive in this field. You also need relevant work experience, as well as programming knowledge and project management skills.

Job titles: applications support analyst, asset knowledge systems analyst, cluster IT specialist, eServices systems team lead, ICT procurement sourcing analyst, ICT support analyst, ICT systems/data support analyst, ICT systems trainer, incident response analyst, infra support analyst, senior spatial information team leader (IT business systems), support analyst technical analyst officer, systems analyst.

Systems Engineer

Systems engineers design, set up and manage computer systems. They often work closely with programmers, administrators and engineers. These professionals not only develop and test but also evaluate personal computers, circuits, software, and other system elements. If you want to become a systems engineer, you’ll probably need a computer science, information technology, or engineering degree. You’ll also need to develop excellent communication and organisation management skills.

Job titles: control systems engineer, ICT network and systems engineer, ICT systems engineer, senior/principal ICT engineer, senior systems engineer, systems administration field support engineer, systems developer (database applications), systems engineer, senior support engineer.

Tech Support

Tech support workers (help desk technicians) give essential technical support and troubleshooting services to end-users. In-house technicians provide support exclusively for employees of the company, while remote help desk technicians provide technical support to customers (mostly online). The job requires a strong understanding of software and computer hardware, and excellent communication skills. The role is generally considered entry-level where you provide customer service directly (and doesn’t necessarily require an IT degree). Senior positions are also available where you organise and manage support teams and/or systems.

Job titles: desktop administrator, ICT helpdesk technician, ICT on-site support engineer, ICT service desk officer, ICT service support officer, ICT support officer, IT service desk analyst desktop support technician, field service technician, field tech coordinator, IT support specialist, school technical officer, tech support, technical support officer, technology support officer.

Web Developer

Web developers design and establish websites. They are skilled in both programming and the design of pages, navigation and user interfaces. Knowledge of search engine optimisation techniques is often important. Some jobs in this field require a bachelor’s degree in a relevant field, but all demand experience (which can be easily gained by creating a website). Web developers can find work in a variety of different workplaces since many different types of organisations need a strong web presence.

Job titles: e-learning specialist, freelance web designer, frontend web developer, junior web designer, python developer, python integration developer, quality assurance technician, responsive web developer, SEM assistant, web designer, web developer, web developer internship.

RELEVANCE OF ICT TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

The Fundamental Roles of ICT

Unbound from the structures of the PTT days, ICT has become the foundation of every section of every economy in the world including Nigeria [1]. explicitly inferred that Information and communication technologies: (ICT) has been able to:

• Reduce transaction costs and thereby improve productivity.

• Offer immediate connectivity – voice data, visual- improving efficiency, transparency, and accuracy.

• Substitute for other, more expensive means of communicating and transacting, such as physical travel.

• Increase choice in the market place and provide access to otherwise unavailable goods and services.

• Widen the geographic scope of potential markets.

• Channel knowledge and information of all kinds.

At the level of the firm, World Bank surveys of approximately 50 developing countries suggest that “firm using ICT see faster sales growth, higher productivity, and faster employment growth”. Table 1 and Figure 2 relate the access Nigerians have to some subset of ICTs.

Table 1. Access to Information communication technology by Nigerians.

S/NINDICATORPERCENTAGE
1Individual access to Mobile telephones63.9%
2Individual ownership of mobile handsets43.6%
3Household Ownership of mobile telephones59%
4Access to fixed Telephony0.4%
5Access to computers4.5%
6Television access67.6%
7Radio access41.2%
8Ownership of radio41.2%
9Internet access6.5%
10Broadband penetration6.1%
engineering-and-technology-nigerians

Figure 2: Access to ICT sources by Nigerians.

The attributes listed above are also critical in expanding individual economic opportunity, enabling people to enhance their knowledge and skills; identify, apply and qualify for better-paying jobs; use their disposable income wisely; manage their own businesses efficiently; and tap into broader markets for their goods and services.

Sectoral Impacts of ICT

The importance of ICT to different sectors of the Nigerian economy cannot be overstressed. Sectoral impacts in governance, education, legal system and business arena are discussed under this segment.

Governance Sector

Governance in the management area can be seen as the process of showing accountability for consistent and cohesive policies.

From the Figure 3, the infusion of ICT into public administration enhances efficiency in the delivery of services to the people. Heber in his own view maintains that ICT helps in taking high quality decisions and at the same time saves time. It is in line with this laudable role that the federal government of Nigeria formulated e-government policy in Nigeria for sustainable democracy through ICT [3].

engineering-and-technology-initiatives

Figure 3: Impact of E-government Initiatives (source: NITDA ICT strategic Action Plan Implementation).

The increasing impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in all public and private Organizations through the internet to enhance interaction with the citizen had brought a new channel of communication also between the people and government in the country. In Nigeria, the emergence of ICT transformed socio-economic and democratic governance shortly after Nigeria returned to democratic rule in 1999. The Government at the centre introduced some policies that enhance the smooth adoption of e-government in the state’s administration.

In realizing this noble objectives, the civilian regime of Chief Obasanjo mandated the then Ministry of Science and Technology to develop an appropriate programmers that can facilitate the build-up of a reliable and cost effective infrastructure that will encourage the efficient utilization of internet services in Nigeria through wide spread of ICT devices in order to leverage ICT to drive the effective and efficient public service delivery to the citizen in Nigeria

In view of this development, ICT is a strategic tool for democratic governance in Nigeria, to identify key sectors of governance which has contributed to socio-economic livelihood of Nigerians and also, as means of human engagement under democratic regime.

Countries that have adopted and applied electronic services (ICT) to their operations have witnessed dramatic improvement in their developmental efforts. For countries such as Singapore, United States, Canada, Japan and most European nations, ICT is a strong tool for sustainable development and improving governance, widening democratic space, increasing productivity, administrative effectiveness and cost savings [57]. It is not surprising therefore that the application of ICT in governance is engendering much concern in many countries of the world.

Education Sector

In effect it can be suggested here that any approach to ICT adoption at the higher education level that stressed only instructional applications and ignores research applications, will be grossly inadequate in meeting the needs of both students and teachers:

The indispensability of ICT in education research in particular includes:

• Learning how to optimize the creativity of African Scientists through participation in international networks and working with data sets.

• Accessing various kinds of research information, which would necessitate a link to the libraries group.

• Learning new methods for disseminating knowledge produced in Africa and using them.

It is imperative that, ICT applications run through the entire gamut of the educational research process [6]. The advocacy for the indispensability of ICT in educational research can be further strengthened by the following argument that tends to underscore the values derivable from applying ICT in educational research, viz:

I. It reduced time and cost of conducting educational investigation.

II. Data sets and library resources can be shared by institutions in different locations.

III. Educational researchers have easy access to current literature materials.

IV. Data sets, irrespective of size can be stored and retrieved when needed

V. Researchers in different locations can collaborate more easily, etc.

New instructional techniques that use ICTs provide a different modality of instruments. For the student, ICT use allows for increased individualization of learning. ICT application and use has proven beneficial in improving Nigeria’s educational system and giving students a better education

Legal System Sector

Through ICT, lawyers and students can have access to current court proceedings/cases and law reports anywhere, any time and in any form in the country.

Indeed, ICT has far reaching effect in the learning and practice of law. They have become useful tools, allowing the use of massive legal information retrieval systems, and are of increasing benefit to lawyers in the context of the preparation of documents’, administration, accounting, and conveyance in terms of decision support. Law students, lawyers, and Judges now use internet and its multimedia component, the World Wide Web to access materials from all over the world. There are search engines containing the addresses and details of websites; e.g. yahoo, google, and Microsoft Network search.

Business mangement Sector

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an essential part of national infrastructure and factors greatly in both public and private sector business enterprises. It creates business opportunities, especially for companies located far from urban centres, and improves links among firms, suppliers and clients. When used well, ICT can also make management and operation more efficient. Some service industries such as finance, insurance, and real estate industries could not operate without information systems.

The Introduction of the cashless policy and other payment initiatives has seen many Nigerians utilizing digital payment methods for their transactions. Figure 4 highlights the steady growth in the value of mobile payment transactions. While the value of mobile, POS and internet transactions combined has traditionally been much less than the value of cheque transactions, Figure 5 indicates that cheque transactions are falling in value, while ATM and other payment transactions are rising in value. Again this highlights a growing preference for electronic payment transactions [8].

engineering-and-technology-transactions

Figure 4: Digital cashless transactions (Source: Central Bank of Nigeria CBN Statistics NITDA2015).

engineering-and-technology-payment

Figure 5: Value of payment transactions (Source: Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistics NITDA 2015).

Information technology and systems have revolutionized firms and industries, becoming the largest component of capital investment in many industrialized societies. Information systems are transforming business and the visible results of this include the increased use of the results vary depending on how performance and ICT payoffs are measured and analyzed [1113]. For example, one empirical study finds positive impacts of ICT investments on productivity, but not on profits. Another study did not find positive effects of ICT capital on productivity, while ICT labour positively contributed to output and profitability. An analysis of the profitability of ICT investments in an empirical study that explicitly considered the competitive dynamics in a market showed that the profits of non-adopters of ICT are reduced as other firms adopt new ICT.

Conclusion

It has been commonly accepted and proven that information and communication technology (ICT) is the engine of the 21st century and beyond; as it will chart the economic, religious, cultural, legal and social life of nations, particularly that of developing countries . ICT has impacted on different sectors of the Nigerian economy. The application of ICT has emerged as the most radical development of the 21st century.

ICT provides economic opportunities to both urban and rural populations. One common contribution is that it increases productivity and makes the market work more efficiently, although the magnitude of the impact on economic growth is likely to be different. The fact that virtually all new mobile customers in the coming years will be in developing countries, and more specifically in rural areas, means that the ICT platform is reaching population with low levels of income and literacy. As a result, ICT is becoming the largest distribution platform of providing public and private services to millions of people in rural and poor areas. Market information, financial services, education and health services had largely been unavailable in those areas in the past due to lack of connectivity of any kind .

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